7. evolution of the juvenile justice system updated

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Juvenile Justice course materials.

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7. evolution of the juvenile justice system updated

  1. 1. The Evolution of the State Role in the Care and Treatment of Children 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. ``` The doctrine that establishes the right of the state to act on behalf of the child 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. In Loco Parentis When the state or its designated agentprovides care and protection equivalent to that of the natural parent (in place of the parents) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. mens rea the Latin term for "guilty mind” actus non facit reum nisi mens sit reathe act does not make a person guilty unless the mind be also guilty". 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. Unwanted Children in Ancient RomeInfanticide throughexposure.In Rome a column nearthe Velebrum, wherebaby Romulus andRemus werediscovered, was theunofficial designatedspot. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. CHILDREN AND CRIMINALRESPONSIBILITY IN ANCIENT ROME• UNDER AGE 7- NO RESPONSIBILITY• 7 TO PUBERTY – SOME RESPONSIBILITY• PUBERTY TO 25 – RESPONSIBILITY WITH AGE CONSIDERATIONS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. Roman Law the Evolution of State Responsibility for Children• Guardianship• Outlawing of infanticide• Orphanage 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. Growth of Parens Patriae in the Middle AgesMagna Carta 1215 – re-established the role of the state in ensuring the protection of orphaned children andtheir property through the appointment of guardians. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. CHANCERY COURTS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. Growth of Parens Patriae in the Middle Ages • 1500 Chancery Court – extended role of the English king in assigning guardianship over orphaned children • 1562 English Parliament passes the Statute of Artificers allowing government to involuntarily separate children from pauper parents • 1601 English Poor Law Act allows government to place poor children in bondage to local residents as apprentices and establishes first workhouses 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. Origins of Institutional InterventionTypical Workhouse/Bridewell 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. Origins of the Modern Juvenile Justice System 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. MEHTODS FOR THE CARE OF CHILDREN IN COLONIAL AMERICA• ALMSHOUSES• INDENTURED SERVITUDE• APPRENTICED OUT• ORPHANAGES• JAILS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. THE BIRTH OF NEW FORMS OF INSTITUTIONAL CARE• PENITENTIARY SYSTEM• SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF PAUPERISM 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. 1787 Philadelphia Society for Alleviatingthe Misery of Public Prisons founded by Dr. Benjamin Rush 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia (1790) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. Changing Social Conditions in 19th America• MASS IMMIGRATION• RURAL TO URBAN POPULATION TRENDS• POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS• FEAR OF THE DANDEROUS CLASSES 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. New York Street circa 1860s 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. Living in Squalor 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. New York Slum 1800s 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. New York Street Children 1800s 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. In 1819 the Society of the Prevention of Pauperism was formed.• 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. New York House of Refuge established 1825 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  26. 26. Houses of Refuge Emphasize Work 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  27. 27. Commitment to the House of Refuge• Children committed for vagrancy and petty crimes• Commitments were indeterminate• Initially youth from across the state were committed 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  28. 28. New York House of Refuge After 1854 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  29. 29. Philadelphia House of Refuge 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  30. 30. New York House of Refuge: A Model for the World• Charles Dickens • The NY House of Refuge is now in the• Alexis De extent of its Tocqueville operations, the greatest reform• NY State Senate school in the world Committee (1857) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  31. 31. Western House of RefugeMain Buildingand Yard 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  32. 32. Work in the House of Refuge• Contract labor system (10-40% of Refuge operating costs)• Large congregate workshops• Brass nails, cheap shoes, cane chairs• Apprenticeships• Binding out• Indentured to ship captains 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  33. 33. Girls in the House of Refuge• Confined until their 18th birthday• Taught value of maintaining innocence and virtue• Learned biblical passages• Trained in domestic servitude and/or marriage• Limited vocational training 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  34. 34. House of Refuge Classroom 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  35. 35. PlaygroundWestern House of Refuge 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  36. 36. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  37. 37. House of Refuge Carpentry Shop 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  38. 38. Blacksmith Shop 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  39. 39. Bricklaying and Masonry 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  40. 40. Segregation and the Houses of Refuge• 1849 House of Refuge for Colored Juvenile Delinquents opened in Philadelphia• Funded by anti slavery groups 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  41. 41. Ex Parte Crouse (1838) and the assertion of supreme state power• In 1838, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court affirmed the doctrine of Parens Patriae and the right of the state to confine children in Houses of Refuge without constitutional due process protections. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  42. 42. Key Events of the19th Century• Houses of Refuge• Reform/Training/Industrial Schools• Cottage System• Probation• Placing Out System 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  43. 43. Key Terms in 19th Century Juvenile Justice Society for the Prevention of Pauperism Child Savers House of Refuge Congregate Institutional Design Ex parte Crouse Reform/Training/Industrial School Cottage System Children’s Aid Society OConnell v Turner Creation of the Juvenile Court 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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