3. the building of folsom and the reformatory movement

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his California Corrections System course materials.

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3. the building of folsom and the reformatory movement

  1. 1. Major Events in California Prison Management 1862-1870• 1862 Mass Escape from San Quentin• 1864 First Good Time Law• 1865 Prison Stripes Introduced• 1879 Convict Labor Law passes 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. “Good Time Law”• Good time laws are the first visible form of early release.• Good time is the reduction of a sentence as a reward for good behavior.• New York was the first state to put this theory into action. “Prison inspectors were given the power to release when the inmate had served three-fourths of his sentence.” This only applied to convicts who were sentenced to “not less than five years.”• In California the warden was permitted to give the prisoner up to five days a month off his sentence for good behavior.• California warden rarely exercised the option. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. The new penology and theReformatory Prison MovementThe search for a more humane and effective penal system 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. REFORMATORY AN INSTITUTION FOR YOUNGOFFENDERS EMPHASIZING TRAINING, CLASSIFICATION, INDETERMINATE SENTENCES AND PAROLE 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. The evolution of the ReformatoryMovement: European antecedants Alexandra Maconochie and the creation of the mark system and the indeterminate sentence Sir Walter Crofton and the ticket of leave 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. Mark System• A system in which offenders are assessed a certain number of points, based on the severity of their crime, at the time of sentencing. Prisoners could reduce their term and gain release by earning marks through labor, good behavior, and educational achievement 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. Reformatory Movement Leaders in AmericaZebulon Brockway Enoch Cobb Wines • Congregationalist minister and president of the New York Prison Commission and the National Prison Association 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline and the United States Reformatory Movement (Cincinnati 1870)• National Prison Association• Declaration of Principles 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. NATIONAL CONGRESS ON PENITENTIARY AND REFORMATORY DISCIPLINE - 1870 DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES• REFORMATION, NOT VINDICTIVE SUFFERING, SHOULD BE THE PURPOSE OF PENAL TREATMENT• CLASSIFICATION SHOULD BE MADE ON THE BASIS OF A MARK SYSTEM, PATTERNED AFTER THE IRISH SYSTEM• REWARDS SHOULD BE PROVIDED FOR GOOD CONDUCT• THE PRISONER SHOLD BE MADE TO REALIZE THAT HIS DESTINY IS IN HIS HANDS• THE CHIEF OBSTACLES TO PRISON REFORM ARE THE POLITICAL APPOINTMENT OF PRISON OFFICIALS, AND THE INSTABILITY OF MANAGEMENT• PRISON OFFICIALS SHOULD BE TRAINED FOR THEIR JOBS• INDETERMINATE SENTENCES SHOULD BE SUBSTITUTED FOR FIXED SENTENCES AND GROSS DISPARITIES IN PRISON SENTENCES SHOULD BE REMOVED 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES cont.• RELIGION AND EDUCATION WERE CITED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT AGENCIES OF REFORMATION• PRISON DISCIPLINE SHOULD BE SUCH AS TO GAIN THE WILL OF THE PRISONER AND CONSERVE HIS SELF-RESPECT• THE AIM OF THE PRISON SHOULD BE TO MAKE INDUSTRIOUS FREEMEN RATHER THAN ORDERLY PRISONERS• INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SHOULD BE PROVIDED• SYSTEM OF CONTRACT LABOR SHOUL D BE ABOLISHED 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES cont.• Prisons should be small and there should be different types of offenders• These should be revision of the laws in regards to treatment of insane criminals• Should be system for collection of penal statistics• A more adequate architecture should be developed, providing sufficiently for air and sunlight and for prison hospitals and school rooms 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. The New PenologyElmira Reformatorycirca (1900) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. ELIMIRA THE FIRST REFORMATORY PRISON ESTABLISHED 1877• YOUTHFUL OFFENDERS• GRADE SYSTEM• EDUCATION• INDUSTRIAL TRAINING• RECREATION• DISCIPLINE• INDETERMINATE SENTENCING• GRADE SYSTEM• PAROLE 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. The Exercise YardElmira Reformatory 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. The new Penology and the struggle for reform in California 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. California Prison Commission (Established 1865)• Formed under the leadership on James Woodworth, a Presbyterian minister• Modeled on East Coast Prison Aide Society• Based its approach to reforming California’s prison system on the Declaration of Principles 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. The California Prison Commission pursued its mission through: • Policy Advocacy• Prison Inspection• Director prisoner relief 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. California Prison Commission proposes bill to create Elmira style reformatory at San Quentin (1872)• Included education requirement and increased good time• Support withdrawn when legislature proposed Folsom site for new prison 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. James A. Johnson: San Quentin Warden and Lieutenant- Governor• Argued to create an Auburn style prison as the fundamental goal in authorizing a new branch prison – rather than a reformatory.• Attempt to atone for the failure of San Quentin to adopt the Auburn model• Johnson advocated for single cell design to allow inmates time to reflect because “every man has within him a germ of goodness.” 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. The Building of Folsom• Authorization Act passed in 1858• Response to the overcrowding at San Quentin• Designed based on the Auburn penitentiary system• Desire to save money• Rejected by California Prison Commission 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. The Folsom site• Located along American River• Large granite quarry nearby 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. Folsom Prison(opened 1880)Massive granite cellhouse withinside cell blocksThick perimeter wall surrounded byguard tower 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. Folsom Prison Cell Block Reflects the Auburninside cell blockdesign 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. The Folsom Prison Rock Quarry   40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. Folsom rejected major elements of new penology including• Indeterminate sentence• Grading and classification• Productive prison labor 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  26. 26. Punishment at Folsom• Isolation in darkened cells• Food deprivation• Shackling• Flogging• “Tricing” and the “derrick” 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  27. 27. Parole The conditional release of an inmate fromprison under supervision after a portion of the sentence has been served 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  28. 28. California’s first parole law - 1893• Board of Prison Directors• Response to chronic overcrowding and disproportionate sentences• By 1906 only 233 inmates of the more than 720 eligible were paroled during the first years of its existence. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  29. 29. Expansion of Parole• Crowding at San Quentin and Folsom led to relaxing of parole criteria. By 1914, there were approximately 600 felons on parole with only three parole agents.• Parole initially was introduced in California and used for over 10 years to relieve governors of part of the burden of exercising clemency to reduce the sentences of selected State prisoners.• The emergence of a rehabilitative justification for parole did not come until 1914, after the hiring of more parole officers to assure public safety. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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