2. origins of the house of refuge movement

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CJCJ's Executive Director Daniel Macallair, is a practitioner-in-residence at San Francisco State University (SFSU)'s Department of Criminal Justice Studies. These slides are from his Intervention Policies in Juvenile Justice course materials.

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2. origins of the house of refuge movement

  1. 1. Origins of the House of Refuge MovementExpanding state responsibility for the care and treatment of children 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  2. 2. State Role in the Care of Children in Colonial America• ALMSHOUSES• INDENTURED SERVITUDE• APPRENTICED OUT• ORPHANAGES• JAILS 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  3. 3. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  4. 4. The Birth of New Forms of Institutional Care• PENITENTIARY SYSTEM• HOUSES OF REFUGE 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  5. 5. 1787 PhiladelphiaSociety for Alleviatingthe Misery of PublicPrisons found by Dr.Benjamin Rush 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  6. 6. Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia (1790) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  7. 7. Changing Social Conditions in 19th Century America• MASS IMMIGRATION• RURAL TO URBAN POPULATION TRENDS• POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS• FEAR OF THE DANDEROUS CLASSES 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  8. 8. New York Street circa 1860s 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  9. 9. Living in Squalor 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  10. 10. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  11. 11. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  12. 12. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  13. 13. New York Slum 1800s 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  14. 14. New York Street Children 1800s 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  15. 15. In 1817 the Society for the Preventionof Pauperism was formed 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  16. 16. New York House of Refuge established 1825 The Jacksonian Era Institution 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  17. 17. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  18. 18. Philadelphia House of Refuge 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  19. 19. Commitment to the House of Refuge• Children committed for vagrancy and petty crimes by city officials• Parents could commit their children for incorrigibility• Commitments were indeterminate 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  20. 20. Support of the House of Refuge• State subsidy• Private donations• City tax on taverns, theatres, and circuses• Tax on transatlantic passengers 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  21. 21. New York House of Refuge after 1854 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  22. 22. Philadelphia House of Refuge (1854) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  23. 23. New York House of Refuge: a model for the world Charles Dickens Alexis De Tocqueville NY State Senate Committee The NY House of Refuge is now in the extent of its operations, the greatest reform school in the world (1857) 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  24. 24. Western House of Refuge Main Building and Yard 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  25. 25. Typical day in a House of Refuge (I)• Awakened at sunrise by ringing bell• Makes bed enters hallway• Line up and march to wash room• Inspection in the yard and then prayer room• Morning school until 7:00 am• Bell rings for breakfast 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  26. 26. Typical Day in the New York House of Refuge (II)• Proceed to workshops• Labor until dinner from12:00-1:00 pm• Back to workshops until 5:00• Supper from 5:00-5:30• Back to school room from 5:30-8:00• Evening prayer• Conducted to dormitories for sleep 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  27. 27. Work in the House of Refuge• Contract labor system (10-40% of Refuge operating costs)• Large congregate workshops• Brass nails, cheap shoes, cane chairs• Apprenticeships• Binding out• Indentured to ship captains 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  28. 28. Girls in the House of Refuge• Confined until their 18th birthday• Taught value of maintaining innocence and virtue• Learned biblical passages• Trained in domestic servitude and/or marriage• Limited vocational training 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  29. 29. House of Refuge Classroom 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  30. 30. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  31. 31. PlaygroundWestern House of Refuge 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  32. 32. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.orgSan Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  33. 33. House of Refuge Carpentry Shop 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  34. 34. Blacksmith Shop 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  35. 35. Bricklaying and Masonry 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  36. 36. Training School Youth were taught vocational skills and spend a large portion of their day working.http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt7p30169k/?brand=calisphere 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  37. 37. Training Schoolhttp://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt0b69p4dx/?brand=calisphere 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013
  38. 38. Ex Parte Crouse (1838) and the assertion of supreme state powerIn 1838, the Pennsylvania SupremeCourt affirmed the doctrine ofParens Patriae and the right of thestate to confine children in Housesof Refuge without constitutional dueprocess protections. 40 Boardman Place www.cjcj.org San Francisco, CA 94103 © Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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