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Concept Note on Kharif Maize Stabilization

2.1 Maize : The world Scenario
Maize is one of the most important ...
2006-07                                   2005-06                       %
during 2006-07.
* Provisional
Source : Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India

      2.3 Consumption pattern
      More ...
corn is leading to a sharp rise in demand for the grain in international market. In terms of
energy delivered per unit of ...
Table 2: Yearwise area and production of Maize in different maize growing Tribal Districts of

Maize   Year       ...
Sabarkhanta. While area under production in Panchmahal and Sabarkhanta keeps
fluctuating significantly in case of Vadodra ...
Collectives for integrated livelihoods (CInI) was registered in 2007 as a society, its main
focus is to emerge as a techni...
3.3 CInI’s Market led Vision around Maize: CInI believes market plays a crucial
  role in today’s world. It attracts and g...
Farmer to Farmer demo of
PoP at inception
Incubating required Agri
Monitoring    &     Cross
Monitoring     ...
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Concept Note on KMS


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A concept note was prepared by CInI for its Kharif Maize Stabilisation Theme, to initiate maize stabilisation program in Western Areas of Central Indian Tribal Belt.

---Aditya Petwal
KMS Theme Anchor

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Concept Note on KMS

  1. 1. Concept Note on Kharif Maize Stabilization Background 2.1 Maize : The world Scenario Maize is one of the most important cereals of the world. With its world average yield of 27.8 q/ha maize ranks first among cereals and is followed by rice (22.5 q/ha), wheat (16. 3 q/ha) and millets (6.6 q/ha). In terms of world acreage, India stands fifth next only to the USA, Brazil, China and Mexico, whereas with regard to production it ranks Top Ten Maize Producers in 2007 Producing sixth. Countries Production (Tonnes) USDA report, quoted by karvey1, gives an USA 332,092,180 CHINA 151,970,000 account of International trade in corn in the Brazil 51,589,721 year 2007-08, till March, is accounted to Mexico 22,500,000 95.087 million tonnes which is higher than Argentina 21,755,364 previous year’s shipment of 93.75 million India 16,780,000 tonnes. Top exporters in the global market France 13,107,000 are United states with a share of 65% in total Indonesia 12,381,561 exports followed by Argentina with a share Canada 10,554,500 of 15%. Brazil stood in third place with 11% Italy 9,891,362 India remained in the exporters list at sixth Source: FAO place by exporting 7 lakh tonnes that comes to 1 percent from India’s total production. For year 2007 -08 production of maize in India, was estimated around 16.9 million tones which was higher than our domestic requirement. According to USDA report quoted by karvey2, India’s domestic consumption is estimated around 15.5 million tonnes. From the September 2007 to March 2008 export from India accounted to 7 lakh tonnes which was higher by 55% compared to previous year’s export of 4.5 million tones. Though commodity markets don’t highlight export –import information of maize as other food grains but various reports of market intelligence market intelligence groups tell about its growing demand in international market. 2.2 Maize yields in India In India, Maize is an important cereal, and both its area and production have steadily increased during the past two decades. For year 2006-7, the largest area under the kharif maize is in Rajasthan (1.0 m ha), followed by Karnataka (0.94 m ha), Uttar Pradesh(0.81 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.86m ha) . Area, Production and yield for maize in prominent growing states is as given below. Maize (Corn) production has shown an average of 2.6 per cent growth rate per annum during the past 16 years. Ninety per cent of maize is raised as a kharif crop in India. 1 Karvy Comtrade Ltd SEASONAL REPORT ON Maize 2008 ; 2 Karvy Comtrade Ltd SEASONAL REPORT ON Maize 2008 ; / 1
  2. 2. 2006-07 2005-06 % Cover age Under Irrigat ion % Prod % Are % % Yiel Durin All - uctio All - Yield a All - Produc All - d g Area Indi n (m Indi (Kg/ (m Indi tion (m Indi (Kg/ 2005-0 State (m ha) a Tons) a ha) ha) a Tons) a ha) 6* 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 291 Karnataka 1.0 12.2 2.7 18.0 2829 0.9 12.4 2.7 18.6 5 41.7 Andhra 407 Pradesh 0.7 9.3 2.5 16.3 3396 0.8 10.0 3.1 21.0 3 34.3 209 Bihar 0.6 8.1 1.7 11.4 2671 0.7 8.6 1.4 9.2 8 57.3 Uttar 129 Pradesh 0.9 11.0 1.2 7.7 1335 0.8 10.7 1.1 7.1 5 28.4 Maharashtr 210 a 0.6 7.4 1.2 7.6 1983 0.5 6.2 1.0 6.8 6 9.7 109 Rajasthan 1.0 13.1 1.1 7.4 1086 1.0 13.2 1.1 7.5 8 4.7 Madhya 145 Pradesh 0.9 10.9 0.8 5.6 976 0.9 11.3 1.3 8.5 0 1.9 Tamil 118 Nadu 0.2 2.5 0.8 5.0 3838 0.2 2.6 0.2 1.6 9 29.5 Himanchal 183 Pradesh 0.3 3.8 0.7 4.6 2326 0.3 4.0 0.5 3.7 9 8.0 Jammu & 141 Kashmir 0.3 4.1 0.5 3.2 1505 0.3 4.2 0.5 3.1 3 8.0 272 Punjab 0.2 1.9 0.5 3.2 3123 0.2 2.0 0.4 2.7 3 60.4 112 Gujarat 0.5 6.6 0.4 2.4 698 0.5 6.6 0.6 3.8 4 6.7 131 Jharkhand 0.2 3.0 0.3 2.0 1230 0.2 2.4 0.2 1.6 5 1.8 West 253 Bengal 0.1 1.1 0.3 1.7 2968 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.9 3 7.0 Others 0.4 5.1 0.6 3.9 @ 0.4 5.3 0.6 3.9 @ - 193 All India 7.89 100 15.1 100 1912 7.59 100 14.71 100 8 21.1 @ - Since area/ production is low in individual states, yield rate is not worked out. Note: States have been arranged in descending order of percentage share of production 2
  3. 3. during 2006-07. * Provisional Source : Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India 2.3 Consumption pattern More than 60 per cent of corn produced is used by the poultry and livestock industry, while 12 per cent is consumed by starch manufacturers. Breweries and exports account for about 12 per cent while the remaining is used for human consumption3. The demand from all sectors has recorded a steady growth over the years. However, India does not produce ethanol from corn. High yielding seeds, coupled with attractive realization, are expected to result in a shift to maize in the coming years, leading to a steady increase in production. 2.4 Demand for Maize Multipurpose use of this agri product is creating a high demand for it in national and international market. Its demand as feed for poultry and other livestock is slated to swell substantially as the growth of the poultry industry is reckoned to rise from the present 11 to 12 per cent a year to nearly 15 per cent in next few years, due to increasing demand for eggs and poultry meat. In most of the major domestic mandis, maize traded steady to better on good domestic and strong export demand. For instance, Ahmedabad starch quality and poultry feed mills quality moved up Rs.20 and Rs.25/qtl respectively on good demand from the starch makers and feed industries. Bihar maize is also trading firm in consuming centers of Tamil Nadu at Rs.950-1000/qtl. Sailing of vessels at regular intervals further added to the positive tone. The port delivery at Kandla stood at Rs.950/qtl., exporting maize to Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. As per the some estimates, India may export more than 3 million tones of maize in 2008. Its increasing use in biofuel generation is further raising its importance. Global corn production is expected to increase by 10 per cent in 2007-08 to touch 766 million tonnes, reflecting its increasing popularity.4 Today, maize accounts for nearly 30 per cent share of total global grain production. Food and feed use account for a major part of maize consumption. For the year 2007, corn use for feed purposes was estimated at 472.71 million tonnes (61.3 per cent) whereas for food it was estimated at 277.51 million tonnes (36 per cent). Corn usage is expected to increase steadily as its availability expands and also because of its competitive pricing with regard to other cereals, easy processing and acceptability as a concentrated source of energy in animal feed. Besides, production of fuel ethanol from 3 Nair Veena; The production of ethanol from maize or corn has led to a sharp rise in demand for the grain, and its price. In terms of energy delivered per unit of money, corn scores over other grains; 4 Commodities Insight 9th June, 2008 3
  4. 4. corn is leading to a sharp rise in demand for the grain in international market. In terms of energy delivered per unit of money, corn scores over other grains. 2.5 Seasonality of Maize in Indian States Maize cultivation can be done in all three seasons in a year. However, in India, 80- 82% of the crop is harvested from kharif season. In this season sowing takes place after onset of the South West monsoon i.e., from June month and continue till August month. Kharif Maize is a short duration crop i.e., 120 days for one season. Left over production comes from Rabi and summer crop under well water managed conditions. Seasonality of few (prominent) maize growing states is shown in table given below. States Agricultural Months (Maize) Se Fe May Jun July Jul Aug p Oct Nov Dec Jan b Mar Apr Karnataka (K) Ahandra Pradesh (k) Ahandra Pradesh (R) Bihar( R) Bihar (K) Maharashtra(K) Madhya Pradesh(K) Uttar Pradesh(K) Rajasthan (K) Gujarat (K) Sowing Harvesting Source: modified from Karvey special report 2006-07 2.6 Maize Productions in Central India Belt In central India region (Rajasthan,Gujarat,Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) a lion share of maize producing farm lands fall in tribal areas where it is done in marginal land holdings in traditional manner. Productivity of maize in these region, come to levels neither ensuring year round food sufficiency nor being able to produce scaled surplus to attract market towards them. 4
  5. 5. Table 2: Yearwise area and production of Maize in different maize growing Tribal Districts of Gujarat Maize Year Area Productio Maize Year Area Producti Growing (Ha) n (Tons) Growin (Ha) on (Tons) Tribal g Tribal Dist Dist BANAS 1999-0 6700 10000 SABAR 1999-00 11770 178300 KANTHA 0 KANT 0 2000-0 6200 9400 HA 2000-01 10880 93600 1 0 2001-0 9800 30600 2001-02 13240 284100 2 0 2002-0 7800 6500 2002-03 14370 181000 3 0 2003-0 9400 25700 2003-04 14630 266700 4 0 2004-0 8500 17000 2004-05 12730 143500 5 0 PANCH 1999-0 183700 204500 VADO 1999-00 49600 59600 MAHALS 0 DARA 2000-0 184300 103500 2000-01 50200 46700 1 2001-02 54600 105100 2001-0 204300 379900 2002-03 53800 89900 2 2002-0 219200 422100 2003-04 50400 82300 3 2004-05 52000 58200 2003-0 106500 143700 4 2004-0 114800 76900 5 DOHAD 2003-0 123700 224500 4 2004-0 124000 78900 5 Figures collected from Agriculture department indicate huge fluctuations in annual yield figures in almost all the districts. In case of Gujarat the graph shown below indicate that there have ever been annual fluctuations in maize yields ranging between 0. 4 tons/ha ( Vadodra) to 2.2 tons /ha (Banaskhanta). The figures of area and production, over past 5 to 6 years, under maize also give an interesting picture to analyze. In North Gujarat tribal area maximum area taken under maize is in Panchmahal, next to which is Dahod and 5
  6. 6. Sabarkhanta. While area under production in Panchmahal and Sabarkhanta keeps fluctuating significantly in case of Vadodra and Banaskhanta they are less fluctuating while in case of dahod it is negligible. And thus significant fluctuations can be noticed in case of district level productions. Thus area under cultivation plays the very first level of crucial role to decide about the maize production in the region. Similarly in case of Tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra and South Rajasthan, as is indicated in graphs shown below, significant fluctuations can be observed in yield levels of Maize. Fluctuation in Maize Yields in Gujarat Districts Fluctuations in Maize Yield in South Madhya Pradesh 3.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 Yield (Tonnes/Ha) 2.5 Yield (Tonnes/Ha) 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 1999-00 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2004-05 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2003-04 2004-05 2000-01 2002-03 2003-04 0.0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 1999-00 2000-01 2003-04 2004-05 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 1999-00 2000-01 2004-05 2001-02 2002-03 1999-00 2000-01 BANAS KANTHA DOHAD PANCH MAHALS SABARKANTHA VADODARA Dhar Jhabua Khandwa Khargond Fluctuations in Maize Yields In North Maharashtra Fluctuations in Miaze Yields in South Rajasthan 2.5 3.5 3.0 2.0 2.5 Yield (Tonnes/Ha) 1.5 Yield (Tonnes/Ha) 2.0 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 2002-03 2006-07 2000-01 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 2006-07 1999-00 2000-01 2002-03 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2006-07 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 1999-00 2002-03 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 2006-07 0.0 1999-00 2002-03 1999-00 2002-03 2003-04 1999-00 2000-01 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2000-01 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 2000-01 2001-02 2004-05 2001-02 BANSWARA CHITTOR GARH DUNGARPUR UDAIPUR DHULE JALGAON NANDURBAR Though there are varied factors which play and leave impact on maize yield, but technolody and field practice is one of the major factors which is under human control. CInI wish to build her, her partners’ and the perspective of the participant farmers on these two major fronts and work for yield enhancement for establishing maize stabilization in the Central Indian Tribal Region. 3. CInI and Its Vision on Kharif Maize Stabilization: 3.1 About CInI: Collectives for Integrated Livelihood Initiative (CInI) is supported by SRTT to support thematic sectors that will augment tribal livelihoods in 107 blocks, eight states of Central India region. 6
  7. 7. Collectives for integrated livelihoods (CInI) was registered in 2007 as a society, its main focus is to emerge as a technical resource agency on issues related to tribal livelihoods in the central indian dry-land tracts. The key roles and responsibilities of CInI, in a nutshell, are : (a) acting as a networking and coordinating unit between civil society organizations, government agencies and donors working in the central India region; (b) serving as a knowledge bank, which would be a single source for the information related to tribal livelihoods in central India, especially with regard to productive use of water resources; (c) playing a role of an idea incubator, by exploring new ideas in the field by further developing CInI; (d) developing brand equity for CInI; and (e) monitoring and providing technical support to the organizations in implementing CInI strategies, through regular monitoring missions and field visits. 3.2 Vision about Kharif Maize Stabilization: Kharif Maize stablisation is one among the strategic thematic area of CInI to make heavy dents on tribal poverty. Maize, in central Indian tribal tract (mainly in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra), where it is the chief food crop on which the food sufficiency of the tribal people depend, it equally has the potential to attract market to provide maize for multipurpose uses. This indicates that a sustained incremental investment in increasing maize productivity through a user-friendly Package of Practices/ field strategy and various support mechanisms for Kharif maize promotion and extension, with a focus on access to market and water will lead to increase in productivity and surplus in the marginal land-holdings in this region. It will also lead to a change in the farmers’ adaptive behavior related to maize production, growth and transfer of learning from farmer to farmer, if the package is developed keeping the market and water in mind. CInI’s field strategy is in evolving phase, but it has kept few guiding principals in front of it: • To identify, like minded partners, working around maize and having willingness to add value to the Kharif Maize Stabilization Initiative. • To jointly evolve an improved and user friendly PoP/ field strategy enabling farmers to bring sustained incremental changes in maize yields. • To put the improved technique on ground and work for its aggressive and smooth extension. • To develop various institutional support systems, mechanisms and linkages to stabilize the yields and progressively motivate farmers towards commercial maize cropping. • To integrate other related livelihood security components to it and develop it as an integrated food and nutritional security program. • To disseminate the learning of ‘Kharif Maize Stabilization Program’ in front of GOs, NGOs , policy makers and the larger world. • Eventually mainstreaming the ‘Kharif Maize Stablisation Program’ with national level livelihood security programs. 7
  8. 8. 3.3 CInI’s Market led Vision around Maize: CInI believes market plays a crucial role in today’s world. It attracts and get attracted in turn towards emerging business opportunities. In this process it brings with it lot of other growth and development supportive initiatives. Maize in central Indian Tribal belt, at present, is grown mostly for subsistence purpose. Farmers as they don’t perceive and are not aware of market led opportunities don’t have high motivation to take up commercial maize farming. Analysis of value chain around maize would enable Civil Society Organization working in this sector to facilitate appropriate placement of farmer groups in identified value chains to make best bargains in favor of farmers and the sector. Secondly analysis would help in materializing value additions in maize as demanded by market. It would also help to make strategic linkages or tie ups like contract farming or tie-ups with processing units before final placement of maize product, to ensure best returns for growers and minimize risks involved. 3.4 CInI as Resource Organization CInI’s role in whole program management cycle can be seen as a Resource Organization working at various levels. In first year it would be playing various roles as listed here • Role of a facilitator and coordinator to oversee evolution of improved and user friendly PoP/ field Strategy and its extension on ground through demonstration, field trails and other ways. • Role of an analyst of background market and farming situations, facilitator for promotion of market led varieties and inputs, role of process documenter. In second year it plays role of developing a full –fledged programme of KMS in the region with focus on agri-processing and agri- business plan with partners. (by establishing linkages with regional processing units for value additions and placing in right market and accordingly promoting type of corn and commercial farming practices.) All the interventions on ground would be done through partners. 4. Timeline 2009 Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec gap analysis & NGO networking & ERP hiriing Value Chain Supply Chain Study Reviwing NGO Partnership Development of PoP for Pilot Vision Convergence and Action Planning Workshop Undertaking field trials in fields of regional partners 8
  9. 9. Farmer to Farmer demo of PoP at inception Incubating required Agri Mechanisation Monitoring & Cross Monitoring anlysing feasiblity and user friendliness of PoP/ Strategy proposed Mid term Progress Review by ERP Mid term Progress sharing workshop for Partners, also tuching institutionalisation issues On Farm demonstration by farmers exposure to PoP Outputs at the end A study for micro financial needs of farmers in Kharif Maize Cultivation process Farmer to farmer experience sharing and extension through IEC material Incubating required institutionalisation for Kharif Maize Stablisation Experience Sharing among the regional partners and plan for next season extension Process Documentation of whole exercise towards development of field practice book or hand book for practise of Kharif Maize stablisation Establishing a supply chain by Linkaging up with players in local market Estimating the next season's production and initiating tie ups for value chain establishment post next season harvest Knowledge Management Networking and Coordination Idea Incubation Monitoring and Technical Backstopping 9