Introducing “knowledge readings”:
Systems engineering the pedagogy
for effective learning
Joseph Kasser
Kasser J.E., “Intr...
Topics










System development process (SDP)
problem-solving perspective
Holistic problem-solving
Perspectives...
Problem-solving

Problem

Remedial action
(problem solving)

Solution

3
SDP Problem-solving perspective
Undesirable
situation (t2)

Undesirable
situation (t0)

Yes or partial
Still
undesirable?
...
The classroom


The undesirable situation






The Feasible Conceptual Future Desirable
Situation (FCFDS)




An ef...
Holistic approach to dealing
with problems
8 Descriptive Holistic Thinking Perspectives
Observe
Scientific HTP

Research

...
Undesirable situation:
Big picture perspective


Learning takes place in a classroom




a system consisting of
student...
Undesirable situation:
Operational perspective




Students are supposed read the session
material individually before t...
Undesirable situation:
Operational perspective




Students are supposed read the session
material individually before t...
Undesirable situation:
Functional perspective


Students have different learning styles




Teachers have different tea...
Quantitative perspective:
Retention rate after 2 weeks
Flipped Classroom

KR

Classroom

Redrawn Dales‟ cone and Learning ...
Feasible Conceptual Future
Desirable Situation (FCFDS)


Providing the five top aspects of the engineering design process...
Solution situation: balanced
classroom
No
classes
on these

Classroom
session
Lecture

5 top aspects (Wicklein, et al.)
(s...
Solution situation
Classroom
session
Lecture

Bloom’s taxonomy

Lecture

Exercises

Exercises

Knowledge
readings

Individ...
Requirements for knowledge readings
(team exercise)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Summarize content of reading (<1 minute)
List...
Cognitive skills:
Beyond systems thinking
Ability to find
similarities among
objects which seem
to be different

“Ability ...
Grading
Grade
A+

Taxonomy level
6
Creating

A

5

B+/B

4

B-

3

C+

2

C

1

Ability being tested
Can the student creat...
Results: Grades



Initial grades match observed student behaviour
Can be adjusted to curve

7

14

6

12

5

10

4

8

...
Results


Team presentations in each session differ






Presentations provide excellent „learning opportunities‟


...
Results


Some students don‟t seem to be able to make
connections between the different elements of the
knowledge they ar...
Example: showing evaluation scores
1
90
80

10

2

70

450

60
400

50

52.35
39.6

350

40
30

9

3

20

300

10
250

24....
Results


Students who are used to classes where they
are lectured at, need to be shown why the
knowledge readings have b...
In summary Knowledge Readings


Provide 3 of the 5 top aspects of the engineering design process
that best equip secondar...
Student evaluations

Why you should use knowledge
readings
What‟s in it for you?

24
Questions or comments?
For a free pdf version contact

tdskj@nus.edu.sg

Today’s presentation is based on
Kasser J.E., “In...
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Introducing "knowledge readings": Systems engineering the pedagogy for effective learning

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By Joseph Kasser.

This presentation shows that by a slight modification to the current concept of operations of a class in which the students provide the lecture rather than the instructor, the learning experience can be more effective. The modification is called ‘knowledge readings’ which:

Allow students to exercise cognitive skills at levels 3-6 of the upgraded version of Blooms’ taxonomy.

Provide a better learning experience, since learning for the purposes of presentation is a good way of ensuring retention of the knowledge.

Easily identify if students understand the knowledge being taught in the session.

Demonstrate that different people perceive information differently.

Enable the instructor to correct misinterpretations as they arise.

Provide students with the opportunity to practice presentation skills and obtain feedback on content and style.

The major contribution of this presentation is the use of systems engineering to combine the modified Bloom’s taxonomy (Overbaugh and Schultz, 2013) with the often quoted learning pyramid developed in the 1960’s at the National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine (Lowery, 2002), and the earlier Dale Cone of Experience (Dale, 1954).

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  • Introducing "knowledge readings": Systems engineering the pedagogy for effective learning

    1. 1. Introducing “knowledge readings”: Systems engineering the pedagogy for effective learning Joseph Kasser Kasser J.E., “Introducing “knowledge readings”: Systems engineering the pedagogy for effective learning”, proceedings of the APCOSEC, Yokohama, 2013. 1
    2. 2. Topics        System development process (SDP) problem-solving perspective Holistic problem-solving Perspectives on the undesirable situation Knowledge readings Requirements for knowledge readings Results Questions and comments 2
    3. 3. Problem-solving Problem Remedial action (problem solving) Solution 3
    4. 4. SDP Problem-solving perspective Undesirable situation (t2) Undesirable situation (t0) Yes or partial Still undesirable? Feasible Conceptual Future Desirable Situation (FCFDS) (t0) Problem No Remedial action (problem solving) Solution End Actual situation (t1) System Development Process (SDP) 4
    5. 5. The classroom  The undesirable situation    The Feasible Conceptual Future Desirable Situation (FCFDS)   An effective learning environment in classes on systems engineering and project management The problem   The learning environment in classes on systems engineering and project management is ineffective Need to create an effective learning environment How to transition from the current classroom to the FCFDS The remedial action  The solution system development process (SDP) 5
    6. 6. Holistic approach to dealing with problems 8 Descriptive Holistic Thinking Perspectives Observe Scientific HTP Research Formulate hypothesis Test hypothesis Refuted Supported 6
    7. 7. Undesirable situation: Big picture perspective  Learning takes place in a classroom   a system consisting of students, instructor, technology and knowledge The literature discusses the need to improve cognitive skills of systems engineers and project managers  Current courses don‟t seem to be doing this other than providing some degree of „systems thinking‟ 7
    8. 8. Undesirable situation: Operational perspective   Students are supposed read the session material individually before the session begins (ideal) Lecture by the instructor     Group exercise   summarises the readings highlights the main points adds additional material pertinent to the session Presentations Short discussion facilitated by the instructor 8
    9. 9. Undesirable situation: Operational perspective   Students are supposed read the session material individually before the session begins (ideal) Lecture by the instructor     Group exercise   summarises the readings highlights the main points adds additional material pertinent to the session Presentations Short discussion facilitated by the instructor 9
    10. 10. Undesirable situation: Functional perspective  Students have different learning styles   Teachers have different teaching styles   Lecturing, discussing, focus on type of knowledge, etc. Mismatches    Seeing, hearing etc. Boredom Poor performance Effectiveness of delivery method 10
    11. 11. Quantitative perspective: Retention rate after 2 weeks Flipped Classroom KR Classroom Redrawn Dales‟ cone and Learning Pyramid 11
    12. 12. Feasible Conceptual Future Desirable Situation (FCFDS)  Providing the five top aspects of the engineering design process that best equip secondary students to understand, manage, and solve technological problems (Wicklein, et al., 2009): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Grading based on cognitive skills and knowledge   Multiple solutions to a problem/requirement Oral communications Graphical/pictorial communication Ability to handle open-ended/ill-defined problems Systems thinking Incorporating higher levels of Bloom‟s taxonomy Going beyond systems thinking to holistic thinking   Systems thinking provides understanding Holistic thinking identifies problems and provides solutions 12
    13. 13. Solution situation: balanced classroom No classes on these Classroom session Lecture 5 top aspects (Wicklein, et al.) (student’s perspective) Exercises Knowledge readings Individual assignment Lecture Exercises Knowledge readings Multiple solutions to a problem/requirement Listened Experienced Experienced additional examples Oral communications - Experienced Experienced Received Experienced Experienced - Experienced - Listened Went beyond Went well beyond Graphical/pictorial communications Ability to handle open-ended/illdefined problems Systems thinking Knowledge readings provide additional and extra opportunities 13
    14. 14. Solution situation Classroom session Lecture Bloom’s taxonomy Lecture Exercises Exercises Knowledge readings Individual assignment Knowledge readings 6 Creating √ 5 Evaluating √ 4 Analyzing √ 3 Applying √ 2 Understanding Unknown √ √ 1 Remembering Listened √ √ 14
    15. 15. Requirements for knowledge readings (team exercise) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Summarize content of reading (<1 minute) List the main points (<1 minute) Prepare a brief on two main points Brief on one main point (<1 minute per point) Reflect and comment on reading (<2 minute) Compare content with other readings and external knowledge State why you think the reading was assigned to the session Summarize lessons learned from the session and indicate source of learning (<2 minutes) o e.g. readings, exercise, experience, etc. 9. Use a different team leader for each session 10. Presentation to be less than 5 minutes 15
    16. 16. Cognitive skills: Beyond systems thinking Ability to find similarities among objects which seem to be different “Ability to find” comes from application of holistic thinking High Problem solvers (III) Innovators (V) Low Imitators, Doers (II) Problem formulators (IV) Low High Ability to find differences among objects which seem to be similar Table by Gordon G. et al. “A Contingency Model for the Design of Problem Solving Research Program”, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, p 184-220, 1974 cited by Gharajedaghi, System Thinking: Managing chaos and Complexity, ButterworthHeinemann, 1999 16
    17. 17. Grading Grade A+ Taxonomy level 6 Creating A 5 B+/B 4 B- 3 C+ 2 C 1 Ability being tested Can the student create a new product or point of view? Evaluating Can the student justify a stand, position or decision? Analysing Can the student distinguish between the different parts? Applying Can the student use the information in a new way? Understanding Can the student explain ideas or concepts? Remembering Can the student recall or remember the information? Downside – grading on a curve is difficult 17
    18. 18. Results: Grades   Initial grades match observed student behaviour Can be adjusted to curve 7 14 6 12 5 10 4 8 3 6 2 4 1 2 0 0 A+ A A- B+ B+ B- C+ C Split cognitive skills C- D+ A+ A A- B+ B+ B- C+ C C- D+ Low cognitive skills 18
    19. 19. Results  Team presentations in each session differ    Presentations provide excellent „learning opportunities‟    There can be more than one correct/acceptable solution to a problem There can be more than one way to satisfy a requirement Based on the mistakes the students in content, style and format Students like feedback on what was good and what was bad Presentations evolve   Better techniques for presenting information get picked up by other teams The instructor can point this out to the students showing that learning has taken place 19
    20. 20. Results  Some students don‟t seem to be able to make connections between the different elements of the knowledge they are learning  They don‟t seem to be able to see connections between    readings on the same topic readings from the current session and readings from earlier sessions Students misuse bar charts, line graphs or pie charts and need to be shown when to use which type of chart  By comparing the information presented in the different charts students soon pick up on when to use which chart. 20
    21. 21. Example: showing evaluation scores 1 90 80 10 2 70 450 60 400 50 52.35 39.6 350 40 30 9 3 20 300 10 250 24.15 200 50 0 239.5 127 127 150 100 16.95 231.5 8 4 16.5 84 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 Sensor Weapon Systems C2 System A B C D E 21
    22. 22. Results  Students who are used to classes where they are lectured at, need to be shown why the knowledge readings have been introduced   Generally done in the introductory session to the semester. Student feedback is    the knowledge readings are a lot of work they have learnt a lot the classes are changing the way they think 22
    23. 23. In summary Knowledge Readings  Provide 3 of the 5 top aspects of the engineering design process that best equip secondary students to understand, manage, and solve technological problems         Multiple solutions to a problem/requirement Oral communications Graphical/pictorial communication Allow students to exercise cognitive skills at levels 3-6 of the upgraded version of Blooms‟ taxonomy Demonstrate that different people perceive information differently Enable the instructor to correct any misinterpretations as they arise Provide a better learning experience for the students Need knowledgeable and confident instructors 23
    24. 24. Student evaluations Why you should use knowledge readings What‟s in it for you? 24
    25. 25. Questions or comments? For a free pdf version contact tdskj@nus.edu.sg Today’s presentation is based on Kasser J.E., “Introducing “knowledge readings”: Systems engineering the pedagogy for effective learning”, proceedings of the APCOSEC, Yokohama, 2013, http://therightrequirement.com 25

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