Cheung_Anne---Online Privacy

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  • Cheung_Anne---Online Privacy

    1. 1. Anne SY Cheung Department of Law, University of Hong Kong [email_address] June 2008 Too Little Freedom or Too Much Speech? Cyber bullying of Chinese Netizens A Study of Online Defamation and Privacy Violations
    2. 2. Argument <ul><li>Growing trend of cyber bullying in the area of defamation (reputation) and privacy infringement in China </li></ul><ul><li>Argues for a liability system on ISP </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cyber Bullying <ul><li>Intentional, deliberate and targeted attack on private citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Abusive, threatening, harassing </li></ul><ul><li>Recurring or repeated </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour for a consistent period of time </li></ul><ul><li>By anonymous individual(s), which may amount to collective activity </li></ul>
    4. 4. Social Sanctions <ul><li>Used to shame, humiliate, ridicule, entertainment, or private revenge </li></ul>
    5. 5. Law on Reputation Protection <ul><li>Art. 38 of the PRC Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>“ personal dignity”, insult, libel, false charge or frame-up is prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Article 101 and 120 of the Civil Law </li></ul><ul><li>Protects reputation, personality and honour </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal defamation under art. 246 of Criminal Law </li></ul>
    6. 6. Privacy <ul><li>Interpretation of the Supreme People’s Court 1988, 1993, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>One’s reputation could be damaged if there is unauthorized disclosure of private details, or as a result of insult or slander </li></ul>
    7. 7. Online Regulation <ul><li>Internet users who insult or defame or infringe the lawful rights of others </li></ul><ul><li>ISPs have duty to remove unlawful materials, inform the authority and keep the record of violators </li></ul><ul><li>But… </li></ul>
    8. 8. Reputation/Defamation <ul><li>Akin to common law </li></ul><ul><li>Gao Xiaosong v. Yahoo (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Chen Tangfa v. Hangzhou Blogcn (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang Keke v. Tianya (2008) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Internet Scandal <ul><li>What should one do? </li></ul>
    10. 11. Privacy <ul><li>Egao 恶搞 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Evil </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Self-Justified Behaviour </li></ul>
    11. 12. Egao 恶搞 <ul><li>Malicious or reckless attack through visual, audio, video, textual forms </li></ul><ul><li>Amusement or entertaining </li></ul><ul><li>Little Fatty </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghai Lovers </li></ul>
    12. 15. Socially Reprehensible Acts?
    13. 18. Self-Justified Act?
    14. 22. Peaceful Demonstration?
    15. 23. ISPs Liability <ul><li>Given large no. of netizens involved, most are anonymous </li></ul><ul><li>Europe: notice and take down once aware that information was unlawful </li></ul><ul><li>US: Communications Decency Act but </li></ul><ul><li>Delaware (Doe v. Cahill) ISP should disclose anonymous authors is the standard of a summary judgment is met </li></ul><ul><li>Washington (Doe v. 2TheMart.com), whether the claim could withstand a motion to dismiss and to file a discovery request </li></ul>

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