Wheat Value Chain and Business Environmental Factors in Zimbabwe
Wheat Value Chain and Business Environmental Factors in Zimbabwe JACKQELINE MUTAMBARA and AUGUSTINE ZVINAVASHE University of Zimbabwe Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
The presentation• Introduction• Study objectives• Research methodology• Wheat value chain in Zimbabwe• Performance in wheat value chain• Business environment factors affecting wheat production• Conclusions and recommendations
Introduction• Zimbabwe agricultural sector contribution to the GDP varies between 15% and 20% annually.• Provides 40% of export earnings and• Supplies over 60% of agro-industrial raw materials (Zimstat, 2012).• Further, it provides markets for the fragile manufacturing sector.• This has enabled approximately 70% of the population to depend on the agricultural sector as a source of food, income and employment (GoZ, 2011).
Introduction continued• Wheat farming is a major cropping activity and the commodity is highly valued particularly its product, bread, which has become a key staple food in Zimbabwe thus wheat has evolved into the second most important grain crop after maize (Kapuya et al, 2010).• Wheat contributes about 4% to the GDP of Zimbabwe (RBZ, 2009).• The immediate wheat products are flour and bran.• Flour is the main ingredient for making bread and other confectionaries, consumed daily by mostly urban Zimbabweans• Wheat bran is mainly used in the stock-feeds manufacturing sector.
Introduction continued• The country’s production levels fell from a record high of 340 000 mt in 2000 to a record low of about 40 000mt in 2011 against a consumption level of about 450 000mt / year (index mundi ).• The decline in national wheat production is attributed to many factors which led to reduced areas planted and declining productivity of wheat over the years.
Study objectives• The broad objective of the study is to provide background information and discuss about key issues surrounding wheat production and marketing that will form the basis for future policy decisions on wheat production in Zimbabwe given the problems bedevilling the sector at the moment. – Specifically the study maps the wheat value chain, – Assesses emerging production and consumption patterns, – Evaluated performance – Identified performance-influencing factors at various stages in the value chain.This crucial data can then provide background information for future policy decisions on the country’s wheat production, marketing and consumption decisions.
Research MethodologyData collection• The study uses literature review,• Key informants and• Focus group discussions to obtain information and data.• Key stakeholders identified from the literature were consulted by use of key informant interviews and focus group discussions to identify competitive constraints in the industry.Data Analysis• Descriptive statistics was used to present and summarize data.• Costs and profit functions were used to determine the performance of the value chain at various levels.• Performance indicators such as prices and volumes of production will be considered and compared to either international parity prices or theoretical standards.• Ranking and scoring were the techniques used to streamline the constraints and provide the focus for further analysis.
Wheat value chain map in Zimbabwe Fertilizer Companies (ZFC, Seed Houses: (Seedco, Windmill, Omnia) Agricultural Chemicals Pannar, Pioneer, Agriseeeds) Input Suppliers Wholesale and retail channels Large Scale Imports Producers A2 Farmers Others Commercial Farmers (83%) Traders GMB, Staywell, Croplink, Crodium, Integrain and others Foreign Millers Processors Formal millers (GMB, National foods, (Imports) Blue Ribbon and others Wheat bran- Flour -Baking Animal feed industry End manufacturing Wholesale and retail Markets Households and other Livestock consumers producers Figure 1: Wheat value chain in Zimbabwe
Performance of wheat value chain- farmers• The average total cost of producing one hectare of wheat is $ 1,788.00.
Performance of wheat value chain- farmersWheat production is currently unprofitable and not viable. Average gross margin per hectare are negative, about -$461.00 and profits are about - $623.81 per hectareYield level (t/ha) 2.50Blend selling price ($/t) 466.00Gross Income ($/ha) 1165.00Total Variable Costs (TVC) ($/ha) 1626.19Total Fixed Costs (10%) of TVC ($/ha) 162.62Total Cost 1788.81Gross Profit ($/ha) -623.81
Performance of wheat value chain-milling industryThe average milling cost of wheat is about $579.00 per tonne.
Performance of wheat value chain- milling industryMillers are collecting a profit of $111.23 per tonne of wheat milled.Item Value ($)Total Cost /t 578.77selling prize (16% mark up)/t 690Profit Margins/t 111.23
Performance of wheat value chain-bakeriesThe cost of making one standard loaf of bread is currently at $0.84
Performance of wheat value chain-bakeriesBread making is viable and profitable in Zimbabwe with bakers realizing a profit of $0.16 per loaf of bread baked.Item Value ($)Total Cost Per Loaf 0.84 1.00Retail PriceProfit 0.16
Constraints in wheat value chainCross cutting issues• Finance• Delayed Payments Economic Impacts• Infrastructure• Supply of Raw Materials• Low Capacity Utilization• Skills and Knowledge Gaps Feasibility of reform• Technology Gap • Time• GMO Policy Inconsistency • Resources• Increased • Action Search/Transaction Cost• Border Protocols• Corruption at boarder posts
Constraints in wheat value chainFarm Input Suppliers – Low Demand for Improved Farm InputsFarm Production: Grain and Economic Impacts Legumes Producers – Low Productivity – Climate ChangeDry Milling Industry Feasibility of reform – Unfair Trade Practices: • Time Dumping of Wheat Flour • ResourcesBakers • Action – Decreasing Demand for Bread – Duty on Imported Flour
Prioritized constraintsResults from prioritization of constraints indicated that the main business environment factors with percentage weight of scores as-:• Availability and cost of finance (9.14%),• Delayed payments (12.25%),• Unfair trade practices such as dumping of wheat flour (12.80%),• Skills and technology gap (7.86%) and• Duty on flour (12.80%) among other factors.
Conclusions and policy recommendations• Wheat value chain (farmers, millers and bakers) is not attractive in Zimbabwe as returns to production are far below economic thresholds.• Stakeholders recommended that the government creates a favorable environment to address some identified issues such as -: – Creating a conducive environment for direct foreign investment in order to improve access to finance and infrastructural development. – The link between farmers and markets needs to be strengthened through the establishment of a futures exchange that will provide farmers with a ready market for their wheat. – Investment in farmer training and research in technology development is recommended to improve production and processing in order to increase efficiency and lower production costs. T – he local industry needs protection from unfair trade practices such as dumping of wheat flour through government protective policy on imports. – Further studies on the impacts of the identified factors should be carried out to provide evidence for lobbying and advocacy by stakeholders for a favorable business environment.