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SIMLESA: Enhancing Integration,
Innovation and Impacts in Eastern and
Southern Africa: Initial findings and
lessons
Muluge...
Executed by CIMMYT with financial
Grant from ACIAR
• Phase 1-2010-2013
• SIMLESA2 2014-2018
PARTNERS-NARS
• EIAR, KARI, DR...
The problem setting
Low productivity Scarce biomass Land degradation
Poor marketsClimate variability Limited resouces
SIMLESA Background……Vision of Success
To increase maize and legume
yields by 30% while sustaining
the environment through
...
Approaches
3+3- Is
INTEGRATION (SYSTEMS)
INNOVATION PLATFORMS
IMPACT ORIENTATION
Information
Inputs
Institutions/policy
More productive,
and sustainable
practices, tactics
and strategies
Better use of
climate
information
M&E, Gender mainstrea...
Test and develop productive, resilient and sustainable smallholder
maize-legume cropping systems and innovation systems fo...
Major findings from on- station and on-farm
trials 2010-2013
1. Conservation agriculture
can improve crop
productivity and...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ETH KEN TAN MAL MOZ ETH KEN TAN MAL MOZ
Meanmaizeggrainyield(tha-1)
Farmer practice
Conservation Agricultu...
Land Preparation and Weed Management Labour Cost
(US$/ha) in Eastern Kenya
Source: Team SIMLESA Kenya
Net returns from integration of different
components-Financial Analysis
5396
4652
2959 2808
2410
1829
497
0
1000
2000
3000...
498
1892
2350
2823
2959
4507
5579
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Maize-legume
rotation (R) +
Minimum
tillage(T)
R T Impro...
Major findings…
2. Conservation agriculture improves ecosystem services
• Maize –legume intercropping increased the total ...
Soil moisture effects of CA based cropping
systems in Mozambique, Angonia district, 2012.
Effects of CA based cropping sys...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Riskpremium(maizeyield-kg/ha)
Farmers’ risk behavior index
Both Crop di...
Major findings…
4. Maize-Legume variety selection
and release under SIMLESA
enhanced system productivity,
sustainability a...
A newly released maize hybrid, BH546, with
narrow and erect leaf architecture and suitable
for intercropping with common b...
3
6
3
5
7
3
1
4
3
4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Numberofvarietiesreleased
Open pollonated variety Hybrid
40
71 72
92
121
0
20
40
60
80...
Major findings…
5 . Adoption factors identified
6. Innovation Platforms- mechanisms for scaling out and
market linkages an...
What Drives Adoption of SIPs?
Group Membership
Those farmers belonging to groups
had a higher chance to adopt:
 In Ethiop...
Credit agencies
Processors
Development agencies
NGOs
Farmers
Government policies, informal institutions, practices, behavi...
What to scale up/out?
Promising new varieties
Maize hybrids
Maize OPVs
Pigeonpea varieties
Soybean varieties
Bean varietie...
How Much Labor do Women Contribute
to Agriculture
Female labor share by agricultural activity for all crops (%)
Female lab...
Key lessons for Asia maize-legume systems
1. Need to carefully understand sources of residues for CA in each
cropping envi...
Challenges and opportunities
• Difficulties experienced in applying the 3 principles as a
package : components, stepwise a...
Lessons from SIMLESA and CASFESA: Enhancing adoption
and impact
• Practices that conserve natural resources (moisture, soi...
From Results to Lessons: Implications
• For many rural households, food security depends on productivity
enhancement throu...
Next steps
• Validate research products
• Undertake various research issues
– Gender technology and productivity gaps and ...
• Promotion of Integrated improved germplasm and
crop management practices is critical.
• Phased intensification across fa...
Take Home Messages
• Crafting and enhancing a comprehensive
integration of disciplines to generate the relevant
options/ t...
Sustainable intensification through CA in Africa
and Asia is not only necessary but urgent
Acknowledgment
SIMLESA Partners...
 CASFESA closure -- SIMLESA: Enhancing Integration, Innovation and Impacts in ESA: Initial findings and lessons m_mekuria
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CASFESA closure -- SIMLESA: Enhancing Integration, Innovation and Impacts in ESA: Initial findings and lessons m_mekuria

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Presentation at a one-day workshop on February 23, 2015, convened to take stock of the Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers in East and Southern Africa (CASFESA) pilot project. CASFESA scientists share experience after three years of implementation in South Achefer and Jebitehnan Districts of Amhara Region, Northern Ethiopia, from June 2012, ending in March 2015. Funded by the European Union through the International Fund for Agricultural Development, CASFESA aimed at increasing food security and incomes of poor smallholder farmers through sustainable intensification of mixed, cereal-based systems.

The project will leave a rich legacy, including:
• adaptation and demonstration of CA-based technologies on selected farmer plots;
• enhancing pro-poor and gender-sensitive targeting of CA-based interventions;
• improving the delivery of information, including on technologies and market opportunities to smallholders, as well as developing policy options and recommendations that favor these technologies; and,
• enhancing the capacity of research, and development interventions, for project stakeholders.

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CASFESA closure -- SIMLESA: Enhancing Integration, Innovation and Impacts in ESA: Initial findings and lessons m_mekuria

  1. 1. SIMLESA: Enhancing Integration, Innovation and Impacts in Eastern and Southern Africa: Initial findings and lessons Mulugetta Mekuria, SIMLESA Program Leader, CIMMYT Southern Africa Regional Office Harare Zimbabwe – email M.Mekuria@cgiar.org, Menale Kassie, CIMMYT- Kenya; Isaiah Nyagumbo, CIMMYT-Southern Africa; Paswel Marenya and Dagne Wegary CIMMYT-Ethiopia CASFESA End of Project Workshop ARARI, Bahirdar 23 February 2105
  2. 2. Executed by CIMMYT with financial Grant from ACIAR • Phase 1-2010-2013 • SIMLESA2 2014-2018 PARTNERS-NARS • EIAR, KARI, DRD,DARS , IIAM, spill over NARO,RAB, DAR • Regional/International - ICRISAT, QAAFI, ARC, ASARECA, MU, CCARDESA(phase2), ILRI and CIAT
  3. 3. The problem setting Low productivity Scarce biomass Land degradation Poor marketsClimate variability Limited resouces
  4. 4. SIMLESA Background……Vision of Success To increase maize and legume yields by 30% while sustaining the environment through • Conservation agriculture and improved maize and legume varieties • the development of markets and value chains, from input supplies to output markets. To reduce downside yield risks by 30% To benefit 650,000 farm households by 2023. CA CHMPION FARMER IN MALAWI Mrs Grace Malaichi
  5. 5. Approaches 3+3- Is INTEGRATION (SYSTEMS) INNOVATION PLATFORMS IMPACT ORIENTATION Information Inputs Institutions/policy
  6. 6. More productive, and sustainable practices, tactics and strategies Better use of climate information M&E, Gender mainstreaming, scaling out and capacity building Improved understanding of socio-economic conditions Input and output markets Household resource allocations Improved range of maize and legume varieties available for smallholders Improved access to inputs Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objectives 4 & 5
  7. 7. Test and develop productive, resilient and sustainable smallholder maize-legume cropping systems and innovation systems for local scaling out Community awareness meetings Farmer consultations and agreement on treatments On-station trials: Out scaling trials and innovation platforms and partnerships Exploratory trials establishment and monitoring: Farmer field days
  8. 8. Major findings from on- station and on-farm trials 2010-2013 1. Conservation agriculture can improve crop productivity and incomes • Three years of experimental data and results from Ethiopia showed that the average grain maize yield can increase by about 5-18% under CA options compared with farmers’ practices • Malawi the increase in maize yield ranged from 3-21% in the mid-altitude agro-ecology, and 8-40% in lowland agro-ecology
  9. 9. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ETH KEN TAN MAL MOZ ETH KEN TAN MAL MOZ Meanmaizeggrainyield(tha-1) Farmer practice Conservation Agriculture WET AREAS DRY AREAS Complex interactions: Rainfall × Soil × Tillage × Residue cover × inputs etc SIMLESA Results on the Ground Increased maize yield from CA
  10. 10. Land Preparation and Weed Management Labour Cost (US$/ha) in Eastern Kenya Source: Team SIMLESA Kenya
  11. 11. Net returns from integration of different components-Financial Analysis 5396 4652 2959 2808 2410 1829 497 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Legume-maize rotation +reduced/zero tillage + improved maize seeds Legume-maize rotation + improved maize seeds Improved maize seeds + reduced/zero tillage Improved maize seeds only Reduced/zero tillage only legume-maize rotation only Rotation + reduced/zero tillage Netmaizeincome(ETB/ha)
  12. 12. 498 1892 2350 2823 2959 4507 5579 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Maize-legume rotation (R) + Minimum tillage(T) R T Improved miaze varities(V) V+T V+R V+R+T Impact of CA on Maize income in Ethiopia 5250 8440 9710 11370 11840 12540 14270 Improved maize varieties(V) Maize-legume rotation (R) Maize-legume intercropping(I) I + V I + R R +V I + R + V Netcropincome(MWK/ha) Impact of CA on Maize income in Malawi
  13. 13. Major findings… 2. Conservation agriculture improves ecosystem services • Maize –legume intercropping increased the total nitrogen in the preceding year compared with planting sole maize • CA options increased water use efficiency overtime. • In Mozambique and Ethiopia the highest water use efficiency is achieved when CA options are combined with maize-legume intercropping system. 3. Conservation agriculture options play a role of risk management strategies • Empirical analysis using household survey data in Malawi has shown that CA options has the capacity to improve farmers’ resilience by reducing the probability of crop failure (downside risk) and cost of risk (Kassie et al. forthcoming). • Higher risk reduction was achieved when CA options are used jointly
  14. 14. Soil moisture effects of CA based cropping systems in Mozambique, Angonia district, 2012. Effects of CA based cropping systems on rain water use efficiency in Ethiopia.
  15. 15. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Riskpremium(maizeyield-kg/ha) Farmers’ risk behavior index Both Crop diversification Minimum tillage Conservation agriculture options play a role of risk management strategies
  16. 16. Major findings… 4. Maize-Legume variety selection and release under SIMLESA enhanced system productivity, sustainability and diversification – CA compatible new maize variety released- – PVS tools and Seed Road Maps enhance availability and access to improved maize and legume varieties to farmers The main lesson from the varietal work under SIMLESA is that building on existing work and networks to create a multi-stakeholder coalitions in seed systems
  17. 17. A newly released maize hybrid, BH546, with narrow and erect leaf architecture and suitable for intercropping with common beans
  18. 18. 3 6 3 5 7 3 1 4 3 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Numberofvarietiesreleased Open pollonated variety Hybrid 40 71 72 92 121 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Tanzania Malawi Mozambique Kenya Ethiopia Numberofdemos On-farm PVS trails conducted during 2010-2013
  19. 19. Major findings… 5 . Adoption factors identified 6. Innovation Platforms- mechanisms for scaling out and market linkages and knowledge and information management 7. M&E, Gender mainstreaming and Capacity building are critical components
  20. 20. What Drives Adoption of SIPs? Group Membership Those farmers belonging to groups had a higher chance to adopt:  In Ethiopia: Cropping system diversification(CD) and minimum tillage(MT)  In Kenya: Improved Varieties(IV) and fertilizer  In Malawi: Soil and Water Conservation(SWC) Proximity to markets When close to markets farmers had a higher chance to adopt:  In Ethiopia: CD and manure use  In Malawi: Improved varieties  In Tanzania: CD and MT Household assets & extension skill With more assets farmers had a higher chance to adopt :  In Ethiopia: Soil and Water Conservation  In Kenya and Tanzania: Manure With quality of extension services farmers had a higher chance to adopt: • In Ethiopia: CD, MT, • In Kenya: CD and SWC • In Malawi: MT • In Tanzania: IV Source: Land use Policy (2014) 42:400-411
  21. 21. Credit agencies Processors Development agencies NGOs Farmers Government policies, informal institutions, practices, behaviors and attitudes Seed companies Farmer coops/ CBOs Public and private extension Input suppliers SIMLESA Research teams Local and regional government Service providers Institutional Innovations – example of IPs Wholesalers & retailers
  22. 22. What to scale up/out? Promising new varieties Maize hybrids Maize OPVs Pigeonpea varieties Soybean varieties Bean varieties Groundnut varieties Forages spp. Agronomic/CA components Planting system (spacing etc) Fertilizer application Weed control Soil & water management Legume rotations/ intercropping Minimum or zero tillage Residue retention Institutional innovations • Farmer targeting tools (typologies) • Gender targeting and mainstreaming • Farmer marketing groups • Link to credit and insurance providers • Post-harvest practices
  23. 23. How Much Labor do Women Contribute to Agriculture Female labor share by agricultural activity for all crops (%) Female labor contribution to maize production – 44% (19-55%) Activity Ethiopia (N=2257) Kenya (N=534) Tanzania (N=551) Malawi (N=1904) Mozambique (N=500) Land preparation & planting 13 48 40 52 45 Weeding 25 50 42 52 53 Harvesting 26 54 41 54 58 Threshing 28 54 38 61 64 Total 23 53 43 54 55 • Women’s total labor commitment is disproportionately high • given that they contribute some 50% of agricultural labor • plus nearly all the labor required for family care and related household chores. • What intervention(s) can ease the work load of female so that their and their family welfare can be improved?
  24. 24. Key lessons for Asia maize-legume systems 1. Need to carefully understand sources of residues for CA in each cropping environment and consider challenges from livestock competition and termites. 2. Labour reduction /savings witnessed from CA with herbicide assisted weed control 3. Rotations across ESA region found to be superior in terms of maize yields despite farmer preference in some cases for intercropping systems. 4. Need for strong input/output market support services through IPs or other organizational support models.
  25. 25. Challenges and opportunities • Difficulties experienced in applying the 3 principles as a package : components, stepwise adoption preferred by farmers • Labour savings from CA generally the key benefit especially in herbicide assisted systems- availability of herbicides • Yield benefits most apparent from rotation systems. • But yield increases were not apparent in some situations especially waterlogged soils. • Diseases in some maize varieties and environments under CA.
  26. 26. Lessons from SIMLESA and CASFESA: Enhancing adoption and impact • Practices that conserve natural resources (moisture, soil, nutrients) also reduce costs of production – Suggesting clear opportunities for sustainable intensification using “simple” techniques: • Such as legume intercrops, reduced frequency of tillage • Risk is a major objective (perhaps co-equal to productivity) – SIPs practices reduce downside risk – Providing extra incentives for adoption – The need for farmer education on these risk reduction benefits • Three classes of variables remain critical for SIPs adoption – Social capital and networks (evidenced by group membership) – Public goods in the form of infrastructure and extension – Private asset endowments (land, equipment, livestock)
  27. 27. From Results to Lessons: Implications • For many rural households, food security depends on productivity enhancement through improved maize varieties and SIPs – For the foreseeable future: the pathway to food security will pass through smallholder productivity and technology improvement on own-farms • Need to expand the analytical frontiers of gender research in agriculture – We find that latent and difficult-to-observe factors lie behind the gender food security gaps • Evidence exists for synergies in agricultural practices for SIPs – Promising win-win outcomes – But also suggesting greater role of information, extension and adaptive research
  28. 28. Next steps • Validate research products • Undertake various research issues – Gender technology and productivity gaps and causes of these gaps – Household bio-economic modelling – SIPs and Risk analysis, – Livelihood diversification • Taking research products to policy makers, farmers, researchers, development partners, etc.,
  29. 29. • Promotion of Integrated improved germplasm and crop management practices is critical. • Phased intensification across farming systems • Focus on impact pathways, innovation platforms and systems integration
  30. 30. Take Home Messages • Crafting and enhancing a comprehensive integration of disciplines to generate the relevant options/ technologies; • bringing on board a functional stakeholders group through innovation platforms for scaling out/up • Mainstreaming gender and inclusive strategies and value chain analysis tools to create farmer-market linkages • Technology, Institutions and Policy remain critical
  31. 31. Sustainable intensification through CA in Africa and Asia is not only necessary but urgent Acknowledgment SIMLESA Partners including Farmers ACIAR and CIMMYT Colleagues

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