Improving Maize Food Security in     the Hills of Nepal Through Participatory Variety Selection and Community Based Seed P...
• G. Ortiz Ferrara, CIMMYT/HMRP• N. Gadal, CIMMYT/HMRP• Dilli KC, CIMMYT/HMRP• D.B. Gurung, NARC/NMRP• S. Pokharel, DoA/CD...
Background - Nepal•   Mountainous country•   Population – 29 M•   88% population live in rural areas•   About 72% engaged ...
Maize in Nepal• Grown in 0.876 m ha, 78% in the  hills• National average yield of 2.2 t/ha• A staple crop in the hills• Us...
Major Maize Production       Constraints• Farmers unaware of new maize  technologies…..(Extension)• Limited access to impr...
Agencies Involved in the Seed           Sector of NepalPublic sector (NARC, DoA, NSC, NSB, etc.)Community (Cooperatives, C...
Seed Flows Within the Nepal Seed System
Gaps in the Current Nepal Seed SystemSupply dominated by           Lack of well equippedinformal seed system          labo...
The Hill Maize   Research Program       (HMRP)MoAC   SDC   USAID   CIMMYT
Strategic Goal“Farm households in thehills of Nepal, especiallyof poor and disadvantagedgroups, have improved foodsecurity...
HMRP Target Hill Areas• 20 Districts• >35,000 farmers/year
Partners (1999-2011)     Government and Non-Government•   MoAC•   NARC•   DoA•   INGOs / NGOs•   Private Entrepreneurs•   ...
Germplasm Introduction           Mid- and High Hills    OPVs                        OPVsCIMMYT-Mexico            CIMMYT-Zi...
Multilocation Testing of OPV           Varieties in NepalRegression of grain yield (kg ha-1) of Deuti,Shitala, Mana-3 and ...
Improved Maize Varieties Released by NMRP/NARC, Nepal (2002-09)Normal - Released               QPM– Released•   Manakamana...
Enhancing Technology Adoption Through  Participatory Variety Selection (PVS)
MOTHER-BABY CONCEPT                   Baby                   Trial                               Baby2009                 ...
Community Based Seed Production• Approach to produce seed of  farmer’s-preferred varieties selected  through PVS• Managed ...
Decentralized Source Seed Production           Through CBSP
Improved Maize Seed Production Under CBSP* Enough for ~ 75,000 ha at seeding rate of 20 kg/ha                             ...
Linking Farmers With Traders Seed Sold by Devistan Women Farmers Group,       Chhatiwan, Palpa (17 dalit farmers)         ...
Evolution of Sindhu-TukiCBSP Group, S/Palchowk, Nepal                       2010   Company                2008     Coopera...
Sustainability, Economics and Marketing of CBSP       Membership        Negotiated          Market        fee, fee on     ...
Progress Made on Food Security (2007-2009)          bbbbBbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb                       N = 21,252...
Progress Made on Social Inclusion                      (2009-2011)                                                        ...
Maize Yield Increase Over Years (1985-2010)          Area and Production                                       Yield (kg/h...
Conclusions• Maize…. A strategically important crop in Nepal• Transfer of technology, seed systems and poor  marketing…. i...
THANK YOU!
S8.4 Improving Maize Food Security in the Hills of Nepal Through Participatory Variety Selection and Community Based Seed ...
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S8.4 Improving Maize Food Security in the Hills of Nepal Through Participatory Variety Selection and Community Based Seed Production

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Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

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S8.4 Improving Maize Food Security in the Hills of Nepal Through Participatory Variety Selection and Community Based Seed Production

  1. 1. Improving Maize Food Security in the Hills of Nepal Through Participatory Variety Selection and Community Based Seed Production MoAC SDC USAID CIMMYT11th Asian Maize ConferenceNanning, China, 7-11 November 2011
  2. 2. • G. Ortiz Ferrara, CIMMYT/HMRP• N. Gadal, CIMMYT/HMRP• Dilli KC, CIMMYT/HMRP• D.B. Gurung, NARC/NMRP• S. Pokharel, DoA/CDD (G. Ortiz-Ferrara@cgiar.org)
  3. 3. Background - Nepal• Mountainous country• Population – 29 M• 88% population live in rural areas• About 72% engaged in agriculture• Annual per capita GDP < US$675• Farm size less than 1 ha• Average household of 6-8 persons
  4. 4. Maize in Nepal• Grown in 0.876 m ha, 78% in the hills• National average yield of 2.2 t/ha• A staple crop in the hills• Used almost exclusively as food…”If there is no maize, there is nothing to eat”
  5. 5. Major Maize Production Constraints• Farmers unaware of new maize technologies…..(Extension)• Limited access to improved seed…..(Seed Production)• Poor market opportunities
  6. 6. Agencies Involved in the Seed Sector of NepalPublic sector (NARC, DoA, NSC, NSB, etc.)Community (Cooperatives, CBSP, DISSPRO, CSB)Private agencies (SEAN, Seed Co., Agrovets)Importers (open border with India)Source: S. Pokharel, 2011
  7. 7. Seed Flows Within the Nepal Seed System
  8. 8. Gaps in the Current Nepal Seed SystemSupply dominated by Lack of well equippedinformal seed system laboratories and trained manpower Weak seed certification system Transportation (poor road infrastructure)Insufficient supply ofsource seed (BS/FS) Limited involvement of the private sector Poor seed storage and processing facilities Open border with India Inadequate food/seed buffer stock
  9. 9. The Hill Maize Research Program (HMRP)MoAC SDC USAID CIMMYT
  10. 10. Strategic Goal“Farm households in thehills of Nepal, especiallyof poor and disadvantagedgroups, have improved foodsecurity and income”
  11. 11. HMRP Target Hill Areas• 20 Districts• >35,000 farmers/year
  12. 12. Partners (1999-2011) Government and Non-Government• MoAC• NARC• DoA• INGOs / NGOs• Private Entrepreneurs• Universities• Donors (SDC, USAID)• Farmers
  13. 13. Germplasm Introduction Mid- and High Hills OPVs OPVsCIMMYT-Mexico CIMMYT-Zimbabwe Sub-Tropical CIMMYT-Colombia Program Other sources
  14. 14. Multilocation Testing of OPV Varieties in NepalRegression of grain yield (kg ha-1) of Deuti,Shitala, Mana-3 and Local on to the mean grainyield of all varieties grown in PVS trials (2002,2003 and 2004). Source Tiwari, et al. 2005)
  15. 15. Improved Maize Varieties Released by NMRP/NARC, Nepal (2002-09)Normal - Released QPM– Released• Manakamana 3 -2002 • Poshilo Makai-1 - 2008• Deuti (ZM 621) -2006 (S99TLWQ-HG-AB)• Shitala (Pop 44) -2006 QPM – Pipeline• Manakamana 4 -2008 • CorralejoS99SIWQ,• Manakamana-5 (HPW)-2009 • S99TLYQ-B,• Manakamana-6 (HPY) - 2009 • CelayaS91SIWQNormal – Pipeline • S99TLYQ-HGAB• Arun-4, Arun-1 EV,• Res. Composite, others
  16. 16. Enhancing Technology Adoption Through Participatory Variety Selection (PVS)
  17. 17. MOTHER-BABY CONCEPT Baby Trial Baby2009 Trial Baby Trial Baby Trial CONSULTATIVE (E-1+LC) Baby Trial ~10 km Mother Baby Baby Trial Trial Trial (E1-E12) Baby COLLABORATIVE Trial Baby Baby Trial Trial (E-12+LC) Baby2010 Trial Baby Trial FARMER’S SELECTION LOCAL VARIETY • TRADITIONAL • TRADITIONAL CULTIVATION CULTIVATION • RECOMMENDED • RECOMMENDED SEED CROP CROPPRODUCTION MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT (CBSP)
  18. 18. Community Based Seed Production• Approach to produce seed of farmer’s-preferred varieties selected through PVS• Managed by the community• Linked with M-B Scheme• More efficient in remote hill areas• Marked oriented in a value chain system• Training, small infrastructure, source seed and linkages to markets essential for it’s sustainability• Highly effective to meet seed demand gap
  19. 19. Decentralized Source Seed Production Through CBSP
  20. 20. Improved Maize Seed Production Under CBSP* Enough for ~ 75,000 ha at seeding rate of 20 kg/ha 1500 ** Meets ~ 30 % of annual seed demand in the hills Tons Groups 830 664 555 480 405 259 309 335 250 131 141 174 174 4521 60 64 82 90 14 7 16 30 2011 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (Est)Tons 14 45 131 259 309 335 405 480 555 664 830 1500Groups 7 21 16 30 60 64 82 90 141 174 174 250 *Source: HMRP (1999-2010)
  21. 21. Linking Farmers With Traders Seed Sold by Devistan Women Farmers Group, Chhatiwan, Palpa (17 dalit farmers) Rs.Agrovets: Pokhara 1100 kg @ 21= 23100 Syangja 1100 Kg @ 22= 24200 Galyang 200 Kg @ 22= 4400 Tansen 1000 Kg @ 24= 24000 Rampur 25 Kg @ 24= 600 Koldanda 550 Kg @ 25= 13750 Madanpokhara 300 Kg @ 25= 7500DADO: Palpa 214 Kg @ 24 = 5136Total 4489 Kg 102,686 Rs. (US$ 1,604)
  22. 22. Evolution of Sindhu-TukiCBSP Group, S/Palchowk, Nepal 2010 Company 2008 Cooperative 2005 Seed grower farmer groups Farmer 2004 community
  23. 23. Sustainability, Economics and Marketing of CBSP Membership Negotiated Market fee, fee on price, price sales wholesaler price Farmers Farmers’ Traders & Farmers (seed groups & retailers, seed (seedproducers) cooperatives companies users) Affordable Household Commercial Cost covering seeds, higher revenue, revenue margin productiongross margin revenue & income
  24. 24. Progress Made on Food Security (2007-2009) bbbbBbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb N = 21,252 HHs bbbbbbbbbbbbbbHMRP-CIMMYTSource: HMRP 2010
  25. 25. Progress Made on Social Inclusion (2009-2011) 49,039 Estimated HMRP beneficiaries in 2011 (estimated) based Fig 1: Distribution of Progress made on Social Inclusion figures for 2010-11 * on preliminary partner’s reports * 36,119 36,119 30,895 21,252 18,144 15,653 15,653 13,792 12,920 12,920 7,460 5,599 5,599 Non- Non- Non- Discri Poor DAG Total dicri poor DAG 2009/10 7,460 13,792 15,653 5,599 15,653 5,599 21,252 2010/11 18,144 30,895 36,119 12,920 36,119 12,920 49,039 *Source: HMRP 2011
  26. 26. Maize Yield Increase Over Years (1985-2010) Area and Production Yield (kg/ha) HMRP *2500000 2500 22.7% 2210 Area, ha Production Mt 2000 19062000000 1800 1681 1625 1500 142115000001000000 1000 500000 500 0 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010* In partnership with NMRP, DoA, NGOs, PS, Farmers MoAC 2009/10 Source:
  27. 27. Conclusions• Maize…. A strategically important crop in Nepal• Transfer of technology, seed systems and poor marketing…. important constraints responsible for low maize production• PVS (M-B)…. An effective strategy to promote the adoption of new technologies by resource- poor farmers• CBSP…. An efficient approach to meet seed demand gap• Partnership with farmers…. A key approach to improve food security, livelihoods and social inclusion.
  28. 28. THANK YOU!

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