S8.2. Maize seed sector in Asia and Public Private Partnership For Maize Research & Development
Maize seed sector in Asia and Public Private Partnership For Maize Research & Development Paresh Verma , Bijendra Pal , Pawan Arora , Ye Jian and Zhong (BIOSEED )
Contents1. Shriram Bioseed profile2. Introduction: - Maize Scenario3. Hybrid Maize Productivity and Gap4. Maize Productivity limitations5. New Tools and R&D Combination to improve the productivity6. Private – Public working module7. Summary
Company snapshot:Bioseed, incorporated in 1992, isthe hybrid seed company of DCMShriram Consolidated Ltd., apublicly listed 120 year oldcompany in IndiaFocus on Pan AsiaStrong research programfocusing on biotic and abioticstressesFirst seed company recognizedas technology developmentcompany by Govt. of IndiaFocus crops: Corn, Cotton,Rice, Millet, Tomato, Okra, Chilli,Egg plant & Gourds
Introduction …. Global Demand for Food Projected to Grow Dramatically as Population/Income Continues to RiseGROWING WORLD POPULATION (B) GLOBAL DEMAND (M MT)9 3,0008 2,5007 +102%6 +28% 2,000 Rice5 +125%4 Cotton 1,5003 Soybeans +40% 2 Wheat 1,0001 Corn 500 +76% 1981 1999 2015 2030 TRANSITION NATIONS DEVELOPED NATIONS DEVELOPING NATIONS 0 2000 2010 2015 2020 2030Sources: FAO “World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030. Summary Report”; IHS Global Insights , Agriculture Division
Introduction• Population in Asia: – 4 bn in 2007 to 5.3 bn in 2050 (33% increase)• Corn demand in Asia: – 173 million MT in 1997 to 310 million MT 2020 (79% increase) – 50% of this is due to improving economies• Corn area in Asia: – 40 million ha in 1997 to 48 million ha in 2020 (20% increase)
Introduction• Ethanol from Corn in US – 1.7 billion gallons in 2000,5.8 gallons in 2007 and 15 billion gallons in 2022 – 134 ethanol plants operating, 77 more under construction or expansion• Corn prices projected to increase in the range of 23 to 41% Tremendous pressure on researchers of public and private sector to find ways to increase productivity
Opportunities to increase productivity Yield (t/ha) Hybrid adoption rates9 Country % under Yield t/ha8 hybrids76 India 40 2.75 Vietnam 85 3.843 Thailand 90 3.92 Philippines 40 2.510 Indonesia 40 3.7 USA Germany West Asia East Asia Central South Asia SE Asia Asia
Technology related constraints• Abiotic stresses – Drought • Low or erratic rainfall in rainfed situations • Light soils with poor water holding capacity • Inability to irrigate enough or on time – Water logging • Poor drainage • Excessive rainfall – Sub optimal temperatures – Acidic or saline soils – Nutrient deficiencies – Vivipari
A biotic Stress•Vivi Pari problems is increasing in south east Asia country .• Vivi pari zones are increasing every year in Philippines• Vietnam- Until 1998 there is not much reports on Vivipari now thereare area in south Vietnam where we can see vivipari very often.
Technology related constraints• Biotic stresses – Leaf (and sheath) blights – Downy Mildew – Stalk rots – Ear rots – Corn Borer• Other constraints – Sub optimal agronomy • No or improper use of fertilizer • Sub optimal cropping systems • Poor weed management
4 major Biotic Stress in Wet tropical Maize Growing Area
BIOTIC TOLERANCE BREEDING Gibrilla Ear Rot North Bukidnon , Kulman and Lebak Screening 4500 hybrid every year in Impalutao,(NB)
BIOTIC TOLERANCE BREEDING Diplodia Stalk & Ear Rot Wao, North and South Cotabato Screening 1500 hybrid /year in Wao (SB)& Banga(SC)
BIOTIC TOLERANCE BREEDING Leaf Blight Bukidnon , Lebak and Kulaman Screening 4500 hybrid /year in Impalutao,(NB))
BIOTIC TOLERANCE BREEDING Vivi Pari Cabanglason, Wao, Echauge , Sara (Iloilo) Screening 1000 hybrids /year in Cabanglason& EchaugeSuceptible
Imbalanced fertility in South Philippines Fertilizer rate of corn farmers, Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat, August, 2008 (before soils analysis) 220 200 180 160NPK kg/ha 140 N 120 P 100 80 K 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 Farmer Number
Socio economic constraints• Small marginal farmers with subsistence farming mindset• Poorly managed or non-functional Govt. extension systems• Lack of awareness about new technology• Lack of willingness or ability to invest in agri inputs• Last mile gap (in remote areas) in the delivery / distribution channels• Restricted seed supplies due to policy restrictions
Trained man power and Funding• Agriculture Science in seen less preferred and hence is a challenge for private and public sector to attract the best talents for agriculture research.• Priority has change in past few year and food production is not getting less priority.• Less funding affecting basic fundamental research in last few years.• Trust between private and pubic sector ?• Not enough breeders to push genetic gain further.
In Bioseed we build strong customer interfaces to better understand their requirements
Technology development• Focus on customer requirements and not customer profiles• Understanding what is economic value for the farmers – High and Stable grain yield – Fodder yield (if relevant) – Low input costs (water, fertilizer, chemicals, labor, etc.) – Fit in the cropping system – Post harvest storability of produce – Differential price of produce
Technology development• Developing products (not just hybrids or varieties) which can improve farmers’ incomes and profits – Must have added economic value for customers – Must be economically producible – Must allow for recovery of the value created• Delivering the right technology solutions to the farmers to achieve high adoption rates
Non-GM applications of biotechnology • Use of Molecular markers – Stacking of traits – Increasing breeding gains ( by creating the Heterotic groups ) – Accelerating product development cycles – Quality assurance – Protection of IP • Functional genomics • Other tools viz. Doubled haploid, etc.
GM applications of biotechnology • Success achieved – Weed management – Insect resistance – Nutritional enhancement • Nearing success Drought tolerance – Drought tolerance – Nutritional enhancement • Early stage of development – Nutrient Use Efficiency – Disease resistance – Yield enhancement – Utility enhancement N stress tolerance
Seeds & Technology and Agronomy will play a significant role in enhancing yield Breeding & Biotechnology 250% Agronomy and Nutrients Reduced Losses 80% Land 100% 50% (-5%) 20% Current Crop Future Crop Production Production 26
Public Private Need Work together For……• To make Agriculture a preferred profession.• Review our curriculum and teaching methodology in order to meet the requirements of private and public sector agricultural research for future.• Expose the students to the state of the art equipment and research infrastructure in private sector (data acquisition and analysis, etc).• Accumulated wisdom of the private sector provides a large reservoir of experiential learning that could be used in teaching.• Young professionals need to develop additional education to handle the current challenges in those areas that are more valued in the private sector than in the public sector.
Public Private partnership• Young breeder/students need to be exposed to plant breeding and other agricultural areas by working in breeding projects, seed production, etc. It will help to give them favorable view of the science.• Private Sector need to provide scholarship programs to the breeders/ scientists and also can have some collaboration with the Public Sector for basic research of the interest of private sector .• Private sector should provide enough job opportunities.• Working to achieve a Common Goal - to improve the productivity .
Some challenges• Increased investment in agricultural research• Increase our understanding of biology• Adequate availability of plant breeders• Create successful public private partnerships – Complementary in nature with no overlaps – Clearly defined objectives and milestones – Equitable resource and benefit sharing – Based on mutual respect for each others’ capabilities – Clear agreement on IP issues
Asian Breeding program V/s US breeding Program• Asian Breeders need to think ……. – To categorize the tropical corn germplasm in different heterotic group – Enough focus on the new emerging problem in corn growing area. – Develop a systematic approach to tropicalaize the temperate material rather than using it directly ( we can learn form GEM program of USA ) Public and Private sector need work together to improve the genetic gains
Breeding Strategy Module Productivity Topography and MarketLimitation at Farmer Cropping System Climatic limitation requirements Field P r i Information v Bank a t P e u Breeding Objective and b Target setting l i c P Breeding and r Germplasm Sharing i v Product development , a seed multiplication and t distribution e
Public Private Partnership • ICRISAT’s hybrid parent development consortia (Pearl millet, Sorghum, Pigeon pea) • IRRI’s hybrid rice development consortium • CIMMIYT - Maize consortium ( IMIC) Some more partnership Need to Identified and developbetween National research institute and private seed sector
Public Private Partnership Biotechnology: Transgenics Molecular marker technologies (no bio-safety involved) Biosafety Breeding & SeedDiscovery Technology evaluation / product productionresearch development deregulation development & marketing Public sector Private sector
Summary• Tremendous pressure to increase corn productivity in Asia in view of the projected demand and price of corn• Tremendous opportunity to increase productivity in view of huge gaps which exist today• Private and public sector need to work together to increase the genetic gain• Economic returns to farmers and other stake holders must be kept in mind when developing new technologies• Use of biotechnology must be encouraged• Increased investments in agricultural research and human resource development• Successful public private partnerships must be created ……. To meet the challenges that we have