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S3.3 Improving the maize productivity in India: Progress,


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Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

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S3.3 Improving the maize productivity in India: Progress,

  1. 1. Improving themaize productivityin India: Progress,challenges andopportunities R. Sai Kumar DMR, INDIA
  2. 2. Status of MaizeMaize ranks as 3rd most important cereal in IndiaMaize area has slowly expanded over the past fewyears from 6.6 mha to 8.6 mha (2002-2011)During the same period the productivity is alsoincreasing gradually (1.6 t/ha to 2.6 t/ha)Maize demand will continue to increase in view ofincreasing demand in poultry and livestock sectorsin the countryMaize is a promising option for diversifyingagriculture due to its resilience to changing climate
  3. 3. Utilization Pattern of Maize in India INDIA Brewery 1 % Starch 11 % Food 24 % Cattle Feed 11 % Seed 1 % Poultyr Feed 52 %
  4. 4. Growth Rate- Maize Vs other cereals (1995 to 2010) Area 6 5 4.7 ProductionGrowth Rate % 4 3.2 3 2.4 2 1.2 1 0.7 0.2 0 -1 -0.3 Rice Wheat Maize Sorghum -0.4 Bajra -2 -3 -2.7 -4 -3.5
  5. 5. Adoption of Single Cross Hybrid Technology
  6. 6. Factors for Increased Maize ProductionThe low yield during the one and half decades back was mainly dueto the cultivation of OPV’s and F2 seed, where the farmers wereunable to purchase the F1 seedThe increase in maize area during last one and a half decades couldbe due to assured realization of crop yields, low pest and diseaseincidence and an assured price to the farmersThe increase in production is due to the spread of the maize in non-traditional areasThe productivity increase can be ascertained due to cultivation ofpromising single cross hybrids under assured irrigation particularlyduring winterThe fluctuations and low production and productivity in certain yearsduring last one decade was mainly due to drought and erratic rainfallwhere the crop suffered during flowering and post flowering stages
  7. 7. Technologies for Improving Productivity Closing Gap Ideas USA ?% 9.0 20% 15% ChinaIndia50-75% 5.00 2.6 Avg. Yield Insect& Weed Drought Developing Developed (Mt/Ha) SCH Disease Protection Control Tolerance Countries (Mt/Ha) Countries (Mt/Ha) Integration of Irrigation, nutrient and post harvest management practices to sustain the productivity 7
  8. 8. Strategies to Further Increase Maize Production and ProductivityDevelopment of long, medium and short durationsingle cross hybridsDevelopment of high yielding QPM single crosshybridsDevelopment of super sweet corn (sh-2) single crosshybridsDevelopment of popcorn single cross hybrids withhigh popping qualityDevelopment of single cross hybrids with high oilcontent (>6.0%)Development of single cross baby corn hybrids
  9. 9. Short Term StrategyFacilitate immediate disposal of SCH to targetenvironmentsScreening of available elite germplasms for differenttraitsTesting in high density plantingClassifying male and female parentsMaking cross combinationDeveloping Single Cross Hybrid suitable to particularregionGrouping them based on Extra early, Early, Mediumand Late duration
  10. 10. Long Term StrategyDevelopment of hybrid oriented germplasmLong term screening for abiotic stress tolerantgermplasmDeveloping Base materials which are tolerant tostress like drought, water logging, temperature,salinityGrouping of Germplasm based on genetic potentials
  11. 11. Broadening Genetic Bases of source materials inlong term visionIdentification of suitable material subject toparticular location specific stressMaking cross combinations and production ofideal hybridsTarget sustainable production and productivity ofmaize
  12. 12. Biotechnological tools for Maize ImprovementsMarker Aided Selection (MAS) Screening for Disease resistance Drought tolerance, High Yield Conversion of normal maize to QPM, β CaroteneTransgenic technology Pest and Disease resistance Improved drought tolerance Herbicide Tolerance Low Phytase maizeDoubled Haploid Production through Haploid Inducers Rapid production of inbred lines High success rate of Induction Development of Inbreds as vigor as Hybrids
  13. 13. Potential for Crop DiversificationAndhra Pradesh Winter Rice Karnataka Cotton, RiceMaharashtra Sorghum, Cotton
  14. 14. Targeting the Non-traditional AreasExpanding area under SCH inEastern, North Eastern states.Result demonstration of SCHin tradition land race growingareas of Jammu and KashmirregionHigh productivity of SCH Maizeduring Rabi season (9-10t/ha)Potential for further enhance ofMaizeDissemination of quality SCHseeds through PPP mode is astrong link for increasing themaize production
  15. 15. New Conservation Practices Maize on Permanent BedsZero till Maize after Rice after Wheat
  16. 16. Resource Conservation Technology (RCT)Higher yield and profit15 to 20 % low CostSave fuel and waterImprove soil health
  17. 17. Promotion of Mechanization
  18. 18. Seed Village ConceptAndhra Pradesh & West Bengal farmers get benefited in differentways:1. Exposure to modern agronomic practices2. It imparts safety consciousness to seed farmers3. Agriculture is weaned away from traditional to streamlined enterprise4. Guaranteed buy back of produce by seed companies5. Ancillary enterprise development like transport operators, godown and container facility services etc6. Good infrastructure development like road, transportation, power availability etc7. Employment Opportunity8. Improve social facilities like school, Hospitals etc
  19. 19. Alternate Sites for SCH Seed Production  Eastern India: West Bengal- Midnapur, KrishnaNagar; Bihar- Muzafurpur, Begusarai  Western India: Gujarat-Himatnagar; Rajasthan- Udaipur  Central India: Madhya Pradesh- Chindwada, Indore, Ratlam ; Maharashtra-Aurangabad, Ahmednagar  Southern India: Karnataka-Bellary, Raichur, Shimoga; TN-Salem; AP- Guntur  Northern India: Punjab-Haryana- Eastern UP in Rabi, Uttarakhand in spring
  20. 20. Production and Distribution of Quality SeedsArea under SCH is keep on Increasing, there is a need to producequality seeds of SCH Involvement of KVKs for Parental Seed Production by Imparting training to KVKs for SCH seed Production Public Private Partnership(PPP) - Public sector hybrids are easily disseminated by entering Memorandum Of Understanding(MOU) with Private seed industriesExample: Green Gold Seed Ltd. of Aurangabad signed MoU with CCS HAU for seed production of HQPM 1 and HM 4 Vikky Agro. Tech., Sampurna Seeds & AB Seeds Ltd, Hyderabad entered MoU with ANGRAU for seed production and marketing of DHM 117
  21. 21. Maize in Poultry IndustriesIndia is 3rd largest egg producer and 5th largest poultrymeat producer in the worldMaize accounts for most of the energy in the feed andpoultry feed provides the link between maize andpoultry sectors8-10mt of maize is required for poultry feed every yearand it is over 50% of total annual productionPoultry industry have buy back mechanism withmaize farmersMaize farmers have assured market and reasonablyreliable incomePoultry industry is more concentrated in PeninsularIndia and employs about two million peoplePrivate sector controls roughly 80% of total poultryproduction in the country
  22. 22. Promotion of Quality Protein Maize Solution to Food & Nutritional Security
  23. 23. Biological value of different cereals 80 70Biological value (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 QPM Normal maize Wheat Rice Cereals
  24. 24. Impact of QPM on Human BeingLow cost quality protein compared to milkMeet the energy and protein needs of infantsand childrenImprove growth rates in young childrenProtein requirements of adultsPrevent and cure protein deficiency diseases,Kwashierkor, in young children
  25. 25. Impact of QPM on Poultry and Piggery Poultry Piggery • Gains in body weight Piglets grew 3.5 times • Feed efficiency Improved faster on opaque-2 • Low cost feed than on normal maize • Less feed requiredQPM -- 3.5 : 1Normal -- 8.2 : 1
  26. 26. Role of maize in furthering farmer’s livelihood High yielding hybrids of specialty corn increase output and thereby Income levels Increased income levels provide economic surplus for increased standard of living Economic sufficiency paves the way for appreciating and implementing newer farm technologies/ agronomic practices hereby starting a profitable corn cropping trend This trend has a multiplicative effect in that other neighboring farmers too follow suit All in all it ends up in a win-win situation for farmers and seed industry
  27. 27. Specialty Corn – for Livelihood Security
  28. 28. Prospects & Potential of Baby cornGrown round the yearCheck rural-urban migrationEmployment generation-work to every handMore income in shortest possible timeQuality fodder for livestock promotionNo additional land for green fodderExport potential due to Low cost ProductionValue addition & intercropping - increase profitability
  29. 29. Maize Intercropping-System20 high value cropsPea, Potato, Colecrops, Fenugreek, Coriander, Beetroot,Spinach, Gladiolus etc. intercropped with BC.Rs6750-78750/ha Additional incomeRecommended Fertilizer of both the cropsMaize yield was not affected
  30. 30. Maize + Pigeon Pea Maize + CottonMaize + Radish Maize + Cauliflower
  31. 31. Profitability of Baby Corn Intercropping Systems Profitability (Rs/ha) BC + Pea BC + Potato BC + Knolkhol BC + Radish BC + Fenugreek BC Sole
  32. 32. Potential for Increasing the Profitability of Peri Urban Agriculture SWEET CORN & POP CORNInternal and External ConsumptionsHigh Profitability
  33. 33. Transfer of TechnologyImparting trainings to KVKs for Parental SeedProductionTraining To Farmers for Single Cross Hybrids SeedProductionFront Line Demonstrations (FLDs)Result Demonstration of SCH in non traditional areaslike J&K, Tribal belts of Gujarat, MP,CGAdoption of Model Villages e.g. Baby corn Village ofAtterna, HaryanaPromotion of Value added Products of QPMPromotion of Sweet corn, Pop corn cultivation forhigh incomeDevelopment of Community Village for Seedmarketing and Buy back arrangements
  34. 34. Creation of Self Help Groups (SHG’s)For marketing and Procurement of maize seedGeneration of income by procuring maizeEnsuring minimum support priceThe women got kudos from the World Bank for theirbold endeavor in agri-marketingProcured 8.62 lakh Quintal (Rs 46.5 crores) through90 Procurement centre in Three monthsEarned Rs 45 Lakhs Commission by selling maize toAndhra Pradesh Market Federation in TelanganaRegion (Deccan Chronicle, dt: 13-3-06)
  35. 35. Success Story of Women Self Help Group (SHG) (Deccan Chronicle, dt: 13-3-06)
  36. 36. Legacy of New Single Cross Hybrid – Late Maturity PMH 1
  37. 37. Medium Maturity Single Cross Hybrid HM 9
  38. 38. Single Cross Hybrids - Quality Protein Maize HQPM 5 HQPM 1 HQPM 7
  39. 39. ConclusionTo realize genetic potential yield of maize the single crosshybrid technology is the solutionIt is an appropriate technology for sustainable agricultureand deserves to be promoted on large scale by both publicand private sectorIdentification of productive seed parent as female tominimize cost of seed productionIdentification of suitable male parent with dense tassel withlongevity of pollen sheddingDevelopment of stress tolerant germplsamEarly maturing single cross hybrids for drought/ excess water
  40. 40. Seed technology research for new productsAgronomic packages for rain fed situationsStrengthen research on hybrid technology for unfavorableenvironmentsMore emphasis for seed production under marginal areasTotal yield increased resulting from genetic and non geneticcauses