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Yield gains and agronomic traits ofmaize varieties released in Chinaduring the past six decades                     Shihua...
Maize yield12.0       America        Argentina   China       Vietnam        Myanmar10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0                 y=107x...
• Problems in maize breeding• Strategies for more effective breeding          The research since 2005         Chinese Acad...
materials1950s:Golden queen, Xiaolihong, Yinglizi, Baimaya1960s:Sishuang 1,HD409, Weier156,US131970s:Xindan 1, Zhongdan 2,...
design• The trial design was a randomized complete  block in a split plot arrangement with  density as main plot and hybri...
Year                   Densities                      30 000 plants/ha2005-2006             45 000 plants/ha              ...
LocationsUrumchi                                             Shenyang                                   Beijing           ...
ObjectivesⅠ yield gains and its association with plant densitiesⅡ agronomic trait changes accompanied   with yieldⅢ N util...
I. Yield gain and its association       with plant densities        i Genetic yield gain      ii Tolerance to stress   Chi...
1. Genetic contribution to total yield gains                           from 1970-2000 12.00                 Total yield ga...
ⅰ Genetic yield gainⅱ Tolerance to stress
1. Tolerance to stress                     Yield at different densities12.0           15 000           45 00010.0       75...
• Yield gain increased significantly with increasing  plant densities.  New hybrids have more tolerance to stress from  th...
2. Tolerance to high densities                                         Yield in Urumchi16.0                               ...
30 000: y = 0.103x - 196 r = 0.96      15 000: y = 0.046x - 84 r = 0.8445 000: y = 0.124x - 236 r = 0.95      45 000: y = ...
3. The Contribution of Stress ToleranceLocations        Environment              Genetic yield gain Beijing     a typical ...
compare                          Beijing                   Xinjiang30 000 plants ha-1 :   y = 0.064x - 121         y = 0.1...
Compare                        Beijing                      Xinjiang15 000 plants ha-1 :    y = 0.041x – 75          y = 0...
Summary• With increasing plant densities, the contribution of  stress tolerance to total yield gain increased. Yield  impr...
Ⅱ Agronomic trait changes  accompanied with yield         ⅰ Plant traits          ⅱ Ear traits    Chinese Academy of Agric...
260                                                                      120                    255                       ...
74                                                      77       73                                                      7...
10000                          9000)     2Leaf area per plant (cm                          8000                           ...
50                             49                             48                Leaf angle                             47 ...
5.0                                15 000 y = -0.02x + 2.1 r=-0.31                    4.5         45 000 y = -0.07x + 2.8 ...
41                                                    2540                                                    2039        ...
18.0                                            12.0                        15 000    y = -0.50x + 4.8 r=-0.94★ ★         ...
Summary• Earlier maturity, shorter plant stature and  more tolerance to root and stalk lodging  under high density will be...
ⅰ Plant traits     ⅱ Ear traitsChinese Academy of Agricultural Science
25                                                4.6                                                       4.4     20    ...
15.5                                              45                                                  40  15            y ...
40                    35                                                                                In America        ...
84                                           83.5                                            83                           ...
Grain yield per plant                            250                            200Grain yield per plant (g)              ...
Summary• Yield gain in China mainly was due to  yield improvement per plant. Plant and  ear traits mentioned also reflecte...
Ⅲ N utilization and its  association with released  decade and stay-green    Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
1. N requirement for 100 kg grain production                                              (2010, Beijing)        Golden Qu...
2. N concentration of grain in Chinese maize hybrids                                                                      ...
3. Stay-green degree                                                            (2010, Beijing)                          Y...
4. Contribution of leaf N to grain N In Chinese           maize hybrids released during the past 60ys                     ...
SummaryNewer hybrids improved in N efficiency,But contribution of leaf N to grain N reducedin newer hybrids because of inc...
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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S3.2. Yield gains and agronomic traits of maize varieties released in China during the past six decades

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Presentacion de 11th Asian Maize Conference which took place in Beijing, China from November 7 – 11, 2011.

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S3.2. Yield gains and agronomic traits of maize varieties released in China during the past six decades

  1. 1. Yield gains and agronomic traits ofmaize varieties released in Chinaduring the past six decades Shihuang Zhang, Xiaoke Ci, Mingshu Li, Jiashun Xu, Degui Zhang, Xiaoling Liang (CAAS, Beijing, China) xkc-99@yahoo.com.cn Maize Center, ISC, CAAS Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  2. 2. Maize yield12.0 America Argentina China Vietnam Myanmar10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 y=107x+974 y=38x+4586 2.0 0.0 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 09 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 Years Data from FAO Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  3. 3. • Problems in maize breeding• Strategies for more effective breeding The research since 2005 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  4. 4. materials1950s:Golden queen, Xiaolihong, Yinglizi, Baimaya1960s:Sishuang 1,HD409, Weier156,US131970s:Xindan 1, Zhongdan 2, Zhengdan2, Qundan105, Jidan1011980s:Yedan 4, Huang417, Shendan 7,Danyu13,Yedan 2, Nongda60, Tiedan 41990s:Benyu 9, Yedan13, Sidan19, Zhengdan14,Yedan19, Jidan159, Nongda3138, Nongda108, Ludan50, Jidan1802000s:Zhengdan958,Xianyu335,Shendan16,Ludan981, Denghai 9 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  5. 5. design• The trial design was a randomized complete block in a split plot arrangement with density as main plot and hybrid as subplot.• Subplots consisted of two rows 0.6 m apart and 4 m long. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  6. 6. Year Densities 30 000 plants/ha2005-2006 45 000 plants/ha 60 000 plants/ha 15 000 plants/ha2007-2009 45 000 plants/ha 75 000 plants/ha Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  7. 7. LocationsUrumchi Shenyang Beijing Xinxiang Sanya Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  8. 8. ObjectivesⅠ yield gains and its association with plant densitiesⅡ agronomic trait changes accompanied with yieldⅢ N utilization and its association with released decade and stay-green provide a basis for designing more effective future breeding strategies Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  9. 9. I. Yield gain and its association with plant densities i Genetic yield gain ii Tolerance to stress Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  10. 10. 1. Genetic contribution to total yield gains from 1970-2000 12.00 Total yield gain Yield of the 2000s hybrids at 75 000 plants/ha Gengtic yield gain 10.00 C 8.00 Yield of the 1950s OPVs at 75 000 plants/ha CD – breeding contribution B 6.00 53% 4.00 A 2.00 Yield of the 1950s OPVs at 15 000 plants/ha 0.00 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year The method from Tollenaar (2002) Ci et al. Euphytica, acceptedOpen pollination varieties (OPVs) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  11. 11. ⅰ Genetic yield gainⅱ Tolerance to stress
  12. 12. 1. Tolerance to stress Yield at different densities12.0 15 000 45 00010.0 75 000 y = 0.11 x - 205.03 R2 = 0.97 8.0 y = 0.09 x - 177.52 R2 = 0.95 6.0 4.0 y = 0.06 x - 111.74 R2 = 0.91 2.0 0.0 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  13. 13. • Yield gain increased significantly with increasing plant densities. New hybrids have more tolerance to stress from the 1950S to 2000S. (Here, Tolerance to stress includes high densities, diseases, insects and so on) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  14. 14. 2. Tolerance to high densities Yield in Urumchi16.0 16.00 30 000 15 000 y = 0.084x - 156 45 000 45 000 14.0014.0 R2 = 0.71 75 000 y = 0.040x - 66 60 000 R2 = 0.344 12.0012.0 y = 0.124 x - 236 R2 = 0.91 10.00 y = 0.049x - 8710.0 R2 = 0.5924 8.00 8.0 y = 0.103x - 196 6.00 y = 0.046x - 84 R2 = 0.91 R2 = 0.7079 6.0 4.00 4.0 2.00 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  15. 15. 30 000: y = 0.103x - 196 r = 0.96 15 000: y = 0.046x - 84 r = 0.8445 000: y = 0.124x - 236 r = 0.95 45 000: y = 0.049x - 87 r = 0.7760 000: y = 0.084x - 156 r = 0.84 75 000: y = 0.040x - 66 r = 0.58 No significant difference between regression coefficient at different densities.Hybrids improved slightly in tolerance to high densities.Hybrids did not attain greater tolerance to higher densities of 60,000 to 75,000 plants/ha as yet in China. Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciencesc
  16. 16. 3. The Contribution of Stress ToleranceLocations Environment Genetic yield gain Beijing a typical environment  increased efficiency in with serious biotic and grain production abiotic stress  improved tolerance to stress  increased efficiency in abundant sunshine and grain productionUrumchi few diseases and insects  improved tolerance to High densities Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  17. 17. compare Beijing Xinjiang30 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.064x - 121 y = 0.103x – 19645 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.116x - 222 y = 0.124x - 23660 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.155x - 301 y = 0.084x - 156 The contribution of stress-tolerance to genetic yield gains was 46% at 60,000 plants/ha based on the difference of regression coefficient between Beijing and Urumchi Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  18. 18. Compare Beijing Xinjiang15 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.041x – 75 y = 0.046x – 8445 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.119x – 226 y = 0.049x – 8775 000 plants ha-1 : y = 0.151x - 288 y = 0.040x - 66 The contribution of stress tolerance to genetic yield gains was 74% at 75,000 plants/ha Ci et al. Crop Science, 2010 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  19. 19. Summary• With increasing plant densities, the contribution of stress tolerance to total yield gain increased. Yield improvement has occurred at a slow pace at densities of 60,000 and 75,000 plants/ha in China.• Further increasing maize yield will be achieved through higher plant populations, and this will require breeding for greater stress tolerance. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  20. 20. Ⅱ Agronomic trait changes accompanied with yield ⅰ Plant traits ⅱ Ear traits Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  21. 21. 260 120 255 115 250 110Plant height (cm) Ear height (cm) 245 240 105 y = 0.85x + 105 235 R2 = 0.07 y = 3.0x + 232 100 230 R2 = 0.48 95 225 Plant height Ear height 220 90 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments, 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  22. 22. 74 77 73 76 72 75 74 71 y = 0.74x + 68 73Days 70 R2 = 0.47 y = 0.66x + 71 72 R2 = 0.39 69 71 68 70 67 69 66 Days to anthsis 68 Days to silking 65 线性 (Days to 67 线性 (Days to 1950 1960 1970 1980 anthsis) 2000 1990 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 silking) 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  23. 23. 10000 9000) 2Leaf area per plant (cm 8000 larger plant size and 7000 later maturity,especially y = 443x + 5526 from the 1980s 6000 R2 = 0.78 5000 Leaf area per plant 4000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  24. 24. 50 49 48 Leaf angle 47 y = -0.76x + 50 R2 = 0.58 46 45 44 Leaf angle 43 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  25. 25. 5.0 15 000 y = -0.02x + 2.1 r=-0.31 4.5 45 000 y = -0.07x + 2.8 r=-0.64 ★ 75 000 y = -0.19x + 3.7 r =-0.85 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 ASI 1.0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  26. 26. 41 2540 2039 y = 0.29x + 39 15 y = -0.8x + 20 R2 = 0.35 R2 = 0.3338 1037 5 Tassel length Tassel branch number36 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  27. 27. 18.0 12.0 15 000 y = -0.50x + 4.8 r=-0.94★ ★ 15 000 y = -1.12x + 6.4 r=-0.84 ★ 16.0 ★★ 45 000 y = -1.09x + 8.4 r=-0.72 45 000 y = -1.47x + 8.7 r=-0.92 10.0 ★ 14.0 75 000 y = -1.72x + 14.0 r=-0.88★ 75 000 y = -0.96x + 7.2 r=-0.82 12.0 8.0lodging (%) 10.0 root lodging 6.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 stalk lodging 4.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Ci et al. Euphytica, accepted Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  28. 28. Summary• Earlier maturity, shorter plant stature and more tolerance to root and stalk lodging under high density will be required for further yield improvement
  29. 29. ⅰ Plant traits ⅱ Ear traitsChinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  30. 30. 25 4.6 4.4 20 4.2 y = 0.75x + 16 15 R2 = 0.876cm y = 0.11x + 3.8 4.0 R2 = 0.83 10 3.8 5 3.6 Ear length Ear diameter 0 3.4 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  31. 31. 15.5 45 40 15 y = 0.25x + 14 35 R2 = 0.90 30 y = 1.3x + 3214.5 R2 = 0.61 25 20 14 15 1013.5 Row number per ear 5 Kernel number per row 13 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  32. 32. 40 35 In America Kernel number per ear have noKernel weight (g) 30 increase. increased grain yield y = 1.9x + 24 25 R2 = 0.88 was contributed to increased 20 kernel weight (Duvick 2005). 15 10 In China kernel weight and kernel number 5 hundred kernel weight per plant (larger ear size). 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  33. 33. 84 83.5 83 82.5 82 y = 0.19x + 82 R2 = 0.12 81.5 81 80.5 80 shelling percentage Percentage barrenness 79.5 线性 (shelling 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 percentage) Year of release(11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  34. 34. Grain yield per plant 250 200Grain yield per plant (g) grain yield per plant had 150 y = 23x + 82 R2 = 0.94 improved greatly, but tolerance to high 100 densities had not. This is opposite to that in the United States (Tollenaar and 50 Lee, 2002; Duvick, 2005) Yield per plant 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of release (11 environments , 2007-2009) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
  35. 35. Summary• Yield gain in China mainly was due to yield improvement per plant. Plant and ear traits mentioned also reflected this case.• Chinese maize yield improvement can benefit from agronomic strategies at higher densities.
  36. 36. Ⅲ N utilization and its association with released decade and stay-green Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  37. 37. 1. N requirement for 100 kg grain production (2010, Beijing) Golden Queen ZD2 YD13 ZD958 (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  38. 38. 2. N concentration of grain in Chinese maize hybrids (2010, Beijing) 2010 Beijing Golden Queen Grain N concentration (g/kg) ZD2 YD13 R2=0.4049 ZD958 Year of release (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  39. 39. 3. Stay-green degree (2010, Beijing) Yellow-type Middle-typeStay-green degree (%) Stay-green R2=0.464 Year of release (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  40. 40. 4. Contribution of leaf N to grain N In Chinese maize hybrids released during the past 60ys The control (2010, Beijing)Contribution of leaf N to grain N Yellow Middle Stay-green R2=0.5954 R2=0.1522(%) R2=0.0587 Stay-green (%) (Yuan & Mi et al., unpublished data) Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  41. 41. SummaryNewer hybrids improved in N efficiency,But contribution of leaf N to grain N reducedin newer hybrids because of increased stay-green.
  42. 42. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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