S1.4.Breeding for Drought and Acid Soil Tolerant Maize in Indonesia
Breeding for Drought and Acid Soil Tolerant Maize in Indonesia M. Azrai, Roy Effendi and M. YasinIndonesian Cereals Research Institute
Importance and Problems of Maize• The second food and as the main feed ingredient• Domestic production is lower, demand on maize incresing necessary imports• Farmer eager to plant of maize, but 75% is cultivated in dry land and acid soil Farmers need DT and AcT Maize• Increasing pest and disease DM• Climate change Difficult prediction of the seasons Need variety tolerant to drought and water lodging• Mize Public Issue: Food, Feed, Energy Inflation Poor.
What the important of DT and AcT Maize inIndonesia?• Maize is planted in Indonesia in ±4.2 million ha• 79% of the whole area is dry land• Most of the land area (59%) is low-productive due to drought and acid soil Plant RS >< Yield defisit
Progress: Production, harvested area and yield of Maize in Indonesia 2001-2010 20 Production 18 Harvested Area (million ha) increasing by Productivity (t/ha) 16 Production (million ton) yield 14Quantity 12 10 8 Technology 6 4 2 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Variety Year
Progress of export & Inport of Maize Indonesia: 2006 - 2011 Volum (Ton)No Year Prpduktion Export Inport 1 2006 11.609.463 28.674 1.775.321 2 2007 13.287.527 101.739 476.162 3 2008 16.317.252 108.170 169.359 4 2009 17.629.758 59.957 293.280 5 2010 17.844.676 32.187 1.552.508 6 2011* 17.392.246 - 2.585.981Sumber: BPS dan Ditjen Nak (diolah) * angka sampai Sept 2011 5
Target of production, area harvestedand productivity of maize (2010-2014) Production Area Productivit Year (million harvested y ton) (million ha) (t/ha) 2010 19.80 4.2 4.72 2011 22.0 4.4 5.0 2012 24.0 4.6 5.22 2013 26.0 4.8 5.42 2014 29.0 5.3 5.80
Breeding Methode• Screening in the green house and laboratory and field• Crossing and evaluation in the fiield • Recurrent selection • Develpt of new high yielding inbred lines.• Iintroduces the inbred lines, populations and hybrids from CIMMYT
Breeding MethodeBreeding For DT1. Determaining of Selection pharameter by the Role of Root to Drought Stress, using 15 genotypes. • The laboratory experiment , we use polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 at concentration of 15% as stress agent. The seeds were germinated using roll paper upright saturated with PEG solution.
• At the green house we apply of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 at concentration of 10%, 10 days after planting• The field, we planting in the well water and drought conditions. The drought stress was applied by stopping irrigation at 35 days after planting (dap) until harvest time• The results showed that drought stress condition decreased plant growth 31.7%, leaf width 29.9%, fertile plant 84.2% and leaf chlorophyll 44.6%. While increased leaf rolling, anthesis silking interval (ASI) 9.8 days, and proline accumulation in primary root increased as 862,4%. The yield of susceptible genotypes decreased about 68.0 – 88.9% and the moderately tolerant genotypes decreased about 54.1 - 60.3%. The main direct effect of drought stress to maize yield was dry root weight
2. Development of new populaton with reciprocal recurrent selection methode: • Sesion 1. Selfing MSJ1 popuation (MK 9, Kalingga, Wiyasa, Harapan, Rama, MS 3, Pop. 27, and Pop. 28) and MSJ2 Population (Genteng Kuning, Pop. 24, Suwan 3 and Pop 28). • Sesion 2. Development of top-crosses: crossing S1 lines with the opposite population as a tester (J1 vs. J2) • Sesion 3. Evaluation of top-crosses in replicated trials • Sesion 4. Recombination of the selected lines: to produce a new cycle (ni + 1) populations • Repead sesion 1-4 to developt C2, C3 .....C7. • MSJ2(RRS)C1 Var Palakka DT • MSJ2(RRS)C2 Var Lamuru DT
3. Development of new DT inbred lines: • Selected 7 inbreed lines: S5 from MSJ1(RRS)C7 good SCA with Mr14 and MAL03. • Selected 19 inbred lines: S5 generation from MSJ2(RSS)C7 good SCA with Mr14 and MAL03. • Selected 5 inbred lines generation S7 from Arjuna Pop are good SCA with Ki3 Developt for Early Maturity Hybrid and DT.
AMROUT-GCP-NARS (ICERI) BREEDING ACTIVITIESGoals: DT and Early Maturity Sea- ActivitIes son 1 Make F1 pedigree crosses: Mr14 x CML444, Mr14 x VL062701, G180 x CML505, Mr14 x CML505, G180 x VL062718, G180 x VL062701 and CZL085 2 Ev F1, 2 loc, 3 rep, RS and DS Mr14 x CML444 and G180 x VL062701 3 Make S1 lines: Mr14 x CML444 and G180 x VL062701 4 Top Cross S1 (M) x P21 (F) & Developt S2 Lines 5 Ev S2 Top Crosses: WW and DS 6 Developrt S3 lines (Selected) In the progrees
AMROUT-GCP-NARS (ICERI) BREEDING ACTIVITIESSea- ActivitIesson7 Make TC1 and S4 lines RS 20128 Evaluate TC1 (WW and DS) and make S5 lines DS 2012 BIMA 79 MakeTC2 and S6 lines RS 201310 Evaluate TC2 (WW and DS) and make S7 lines DS 201211 Make new pedigree crosses BIMA 2
Joint Research Project: GCP-AMROUD-AAA & NARS in IndonesiaGoal: Developt of DT and DMR Inbreed lines and hybridsProgress:• Crosses 11 CIMMYT IL (White color and ICERI IL (Yellow Color)• Starting DM Evaluation than will be continue to selfing S 1 Follow AAA Methode/Schedule• Starting SCA Evaluation Selected S1 SCA and DMR
Breeding For AcT• ICERI have 2 OPV good tolerance for Ac: • Antasena Introduced from CIMMYT (Susceptible DM) • Sukmaraga AMATL (HS) C2 Improvment population AMATL introduced from CIMMYT (Moderat Resistance to DM) SUKMARAGA
• In 2011, ICeRI Introduced 17 hybrids and some lines AcT from CIMMYT Colombia (Many tahanks Dr. Luis Narro).• Result of Evalution at Normar Condition in Maros showed 3 hybris very good performance, i.e. No 9, 15, and 17.• In the Acid Soils Env., we can’t harvest because infected of DM > 85%.
Our Breeding Prongram: Developt New Population and Hybrid Tolerant to Ac.S and DMR• screen maize genotypes under Al stress in culture solution..• The main plots were Al concentration (0, 2.5, 5 10, 20, and 40 ppm Al), and the sub plots were 22 maize genotypes.• The results indicated that the genotype AMATL- (HS).C2, SATP-(S2)-C6S0, MRSS-1(S1).C1- 29-1, and MRSS-1(S1).C1-57-1 were more tolerant to Al-toxicity than the other genotypes including Antasena.
• The Concentration of 5 - 10 ppm Al in nutrient solution was adequate to separate genotypes between tolerant and sensitive genotypes in screening of maize genotype under Al stress.• Relative net root length and relative root length were the best variable to be used as Al-tolerance indicators.• Continue developt inbred lines and improving of pop toleran to Ac Soil and DMR