Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:
Are we dreaming?
Bruno Gerard and Francelino Rodrigues,
International Maize...
Kite aerial photography of Bagoua village, Niger, B. Gerard 1999
A system thinker and actor!
“The greatest thing he [Norman Borlaug] did for
the field of agronomy was to begin to show peo...
Projected
demand by
2050 (FAO)
Linear
extrapolations
of current
trends
Potential effect
of climate-
change-induced
heat st...
Sustainable Intensification
More than just sustaining yield increases,
it is about economics and profitability,
social equ...
Source: Herrero et al. 2010
Technology
generation
Community to
landscape system
HH farming systemField Institutions &
Markets
Process
research
Enablin...
“Sustainable Intensification” – producing more outputs with more efficient use
of all inputs on a durable basis, while red...
Indicators must be integrated by multi-criteria methods for an overall
evaluation of the main advantages and disadvantages...
Small farm
0
50
100
Gross Margin
Return to labor
Benefit/Cost
Soil Carbon
Balance
Soil Nitrogen
Balance
Soil losses
Gross ...
MKT CSH
CNS
HOME
LVSTK
OE
WOOD
MKT
CNS
HOME
LVSTK
WOOD
FOOD
OFF-FARM
CSH
MKT
CSH
CNS
HOME
LVSTK
WOOD
FOOD
MKT
CNS
HOME
LVS...
Mueller et al., Nature 2012
Year
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Nitrogenefficiencyincerealproduction
(megatonnescerealgrain/megatonnsfertiliz...
Our Precision Agriculture Principles
• Precision agriculture for smallholder farmers
should be seen at multiple scales:
– ...
Why should new technologies not benefit
smallholders farmers of the world?
Penetration of cell phones in countries where w...
72.1 70
30
70.7
82.1
99
60
80
56.4
84.3
52.9
92.1
60 60
54.3
Cell phone
Data Source: CCAFS Surveys 2012
Four building blocks of precision
agriculture for smallholder farmers
- Remote sensing and other monitoring tools (weather...
Connections of remote sensing products with (decision) support
tools for farmers
Field data base
Recommendations
Crop Mgr ...
Fertility management practices
• ‘Blanket’ recommendations for large areas
• Based on old data
• Developed on experiment s...
Embracing the promise of ICTs with accessible tools for
site-specific nutrient management
for rice, maize, and wheat in S....
MOBILE
PHONE
ACTUAL N&P
APPLICATION
YIELD
ESTIMATES
DECISION
SUPPORT
REMOTE
SENSING
1
2
3
4
5
Precision nutrient management: Farmers
Accessible Options
• Decision Support Tools
(Nutrient Expert for
wheat) for SSNM+
•...
Severe events (drought(s)) at different phenological stages of crop growth
Extreme heat stress (wheat) -spikelet sterility...
The combination and sequencing of crops with different
management practices and under different environmental
conditions
I...
Amazing technological breakthrough
More for less: better, easier, faster and cheaper
Gerard et al. , Soil Sci. Plant Nutr....
False color image of CIMMYT station at Obregon, Mexico acquired from
multispectral camera at 1 m resolution on Feb. 15, 20...
Thermal image of CIMMYT station at Obregon, Mexico acquired from the thermal camera at 2 m
resolution on Feb. 14, 2013. We...
Farm level benefits in
RWCS of IGP
• ~7 % gain in crop
productivity
• ~20 % (18 ha-cm yr-1)
saving in irrigation water,
• ...
Mapping soil variability (EM38)
Priorities
• Recommendation domains for intensification at
different granularities (regional, national,
landscape, farm, f...
Priorities (cont.)
• Upscaling/downscaling:
On-farm trials - Proxi-sensors – UAV/airborne –
spaceborne
• Data articulation...
www.maize.org
Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming?
Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming?
Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming?
Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming?
Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

of

Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 1 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 2 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 3 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 4 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 5 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 6 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 7 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 8 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 9 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 10 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 11 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 12 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 13 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 14 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 15 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 16 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 17 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 18 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 19 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 20 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 21 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 22 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 23 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 24 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 25 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 26 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 27 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 28 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 29 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 30 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 31 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 32 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 33 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 34 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 35 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 36 Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers:  Are we dreaming? Slide 37
Upcoming SlideShare
Brussels Briefing 45: Damien van Eeckhout "Contribution of unmanned aerial systems to precision farming"
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

9 Likes

Share

Download to read offline

Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers: Are we dreaming?

Download to read offline

Presentation delivered by Dr. Bruno Gerard (Global Conservation Agriculture Program, CIMMYT) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.
http://www.borlaug100.org

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers: Are we dreaming?

  1. 1. Precision Agriculture for smallholder farmers: Are we dreaming? Bruno Gerard and Francelino Rodrigues, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Kite aerial photography of Bagoua village, Niger, B. Gerard 1999
  2. 2. Kite aerial photography of Bagoua village, Niger, B. Gerard 1999
  3. 3. A system thinker and actor! “The greatest thing he [Norman Borlaug] did for the field of agronomy was to begin to show people that they had to think about multiple parts of the system… … If you think about what he did in the Green Revolution, it wasn’t about genetics, and it wasn’t about fertility, and it wasn’t about water. It was about all of those different things together.” Jerry Hatfield, lab director at the USDA-ARS in CSA March 2014 issue https://www.crops.org/publications/csa/tocs/59/3
  4. 4. Projected demand by 2050 (FAO) Linear extrapolations of current trends Potential effect of climate- change-induced heat stress on today’s cultivars (intermediate CO2 emission scenario)
  5. 5. Sustainable Intensification More than just sustaining yield increases, it is about economics and profitability, social equity and environmental friendliness Dealing with complex and heterogeneous systems
  6. 6. Source: Herrero et al. 2010
  7. 7. Technology generation Community to landscape system HH farming systemField Institutions & Markets Process research Enabling & analysis tools Output target - Water ‘Last mile providers’ Innovation systemsParticipatory co-innovation & learning - System interactions: - Livestock, cash crops; trees- Weeds - Pests & diseases - Soil health - Nutrients HH typologies (livelihood & biophysical) Trade-off analysis Bio-economic models Geospatial (domains, impact) - Knowledge products - Identify inefficiencies (markets, providers) Outcome Increased productivity & stability of farming systems Increased income of smallholder farmers Scale - Tillage - Rotation - Intercropping - Systems for the future Increased yield of maize/wheat for smallholder farmers - System impacts on NRM & ecosystem services - Mechanisation Business models - Communication products Sustainable Intensification Framework Courtesy: Peter Craufurd
  8. 8. “Sustainable Intensification” – producing more outputs with more efficient use of all inputs on a durable basis, while reducing environmental damage and building resilience, natural capital and the flow of environmental services – High PRODUCTIVITY Low Objective Time STABILITY Low High Time Objective Critical Variable RELIABILITY High Low Objective Time ADAPTABILITY High Low Objective Time Critical Variable RESILIENCE High Objective Time Low Critical Variable EFFICIENCY Courtesy: S. Lopez-Ridaura
  9. 9. Indicators must be integrated by multi-criteria methods for an overall evaluation of the main advantages and disadvantages of different solutions or scenarios (synergies and trade-offs) INTEGRATION OF INDICATORS Traditional System Conventional system Optimal 0.0 0.5 1.0 B/C ratio Food self sufficiency Erosion Soil Organic Matter Forage self sufficiency Yield variability with rainfall Vulnerability to changes in inputs and output prices Diversity of agricultural products Independence to external inputs Independence to hired labor Gross Margin Source: Lopez-Ridaura
  10. 10. Small farm 0 50 100 Gross Margin Return to labor Benefit/Cost Soil Carbon Balance Soil Nitrogen Balance Soil losses Gross margin variation with rainfall Gross Margin reduction in dry years Gross Margin variation with prices of outputs Gross margin reduction with low output prices Monetary Costs Dependence to external inputs 0 50 100 Gross Margin Return to labor Benefit/Cost Soil Carbon Balance Soil Nitrogen Balance Gross Margin variation with prices of outputs Gross margin reduction with low output prices Monetary Costs Dependence to external inputs Soil losses Gross margin variation with rainfall Gross Margin reduction in dry years Large farm Multi-criteria Farming systems analysis/ Recommendation domains Surveys (resource endowment, crops/animals, management, ….x…) Interviews (farm management, resource allocation, strategies) Modeling (MCDM, farm flows, optimization) FARMING SYSTEMS Courtesy: S. Lopez-Ridaura
  11. 11. MKT CSH CNS HOME LVSTK OE WOOD MKT CNS HOME LVSTK WOOD FOOD OFF-FARM CSH MKT CSH CNS HOME LVSTK WOOD FOOD MKT CNS HOME LVSTK WOOD FOOD OFF-FARM MKT CNS HOM E WOOD FOOD OFF-FARM CSH Type 1 Type 5 Type 4 Type 3 Type 2 Cash Labour Nutrients Resource allocation strategies Tittonell (2003) Farming Systems Typologies (Structural-functional) FARMING SYSTEMS
  12. 12. Mueller et al., Nature 2012
  13. 13. Year 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Nitrogenefficiencyincerealproduction (megatonnescerealgrain/megatonnsfertilizerapplied) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Trends in N-fertilization efficiency in cereal production (annual global cereal production divided by annual global application of N-fertilizer) (Source: FAO 2012) Global food production has tripled during this period, but N-fertilizer applications have increased 10-fold (Tilman et al., 2001) Nitrogen application has reached a point of diminishing returns – i.e. we are applying more and more nitrogen to get similar yields and this may continue in future Courtesy: GV Subbaro, JIRCAS
  14. 14. Our Precision Agriculture Principles • Precision agriculture for smallholder farmers should be seen at multiple scales: – Not only dealing with within field spatial variability but also intra-farm (and inter-farm) resource allocation – Precision Agriculture -> more precise agriculture (spatial and temporal dimension) – Where, when, what, how?
  15. 15. Why should new technologies not benefit smallholders farmers of the world? Penetration of cell phones in countries where we work is high ‘From the description of site-specific activities it is obvious that although precision agriculture, as seen in Europe and North America, is largely irrelevant in developing countries, the need for spatial information is actually greater, principally because of stronger imperative for change and lack of conventional support’ Cook et al., 2003.
  16. 16. 72.1 70 30 70.7 82.1 99 60 80 56.4 84.3 52.9 92.1 60 60 54.3 Cell phone Data Source: CCAFS Surveys 2012
  17. 17. Four building blocks of precision agriculture for smallholder farmers - Remote sensing and other monitoring tools (weather, soil monitoring ) -> diagnosis, spatial and temporal dimensions - Nutrient, water and disease management, crop modelling -> how you turn diagnosis into recommendations - Information and Communication Technologies -> how you get diagnosis from and provide recommendations to farmers (path for crowdsourcing) - Mechanization -> how you apply rec. in the field Articulation of those blocks are system specific and needs dvpt of specific business models
  18. 18. Connections of remote sensing products with (decision) support tools for farmers Field data base Recommendations Crop Mgr (IRRI/CIMMYT) Micro Credit Field boundaries Farmer information Crop management data Crop Insurance Irrigation scheduling Recommendation domains & Diagnostics for technology targeting Ground Cover Surface Soil Moisture Chlorophyll Key crop phenology Crop & fallow land Attainable Yield Actual Yield Yield gap Damage maps Surface water / flood Remote Sensing Digital elevation model Climate and weather Data
  19. 19. Fertility management practices • ‘Blanket’ recommendations for large areas • Based on old data • Developed on experiment stations, not farmers fields Recommendations that do not match local conditions cost farmers yield and profits – especially where fertilizers are $$
  20. 20. Embracing the promise of ICTs with accessible tools for site-specific nutrient management for rice, maize, and wheat in S. Asia Courtesy of Roland Buresh, IRRI 2. Compute field- specific guideline Model hosted on the cloud 1. Acquire field-specific information from farmers Web Smartphone 3. Provide customized field-specific guidelines in local language Multi-format output The architecture is in place
  21. 21. MOBILE PHONE ACTUAL N&P APPLICATION YIELD ESTIMATES DECISION SUPPORT REMOTE SENSING 1 2 3 4 5
  22. 22. Precision nutrient management: Farmers Accessible Options • Decision Support Tools (Nutrient Expert for wheat) for SSNM+ • Handheld sensors • Band placement
  23. 23. Severe events (drought(s)) at different phenological stages of crop growth Extreme heat stress (wheat) -spikelet sterility and limited grain filling. CROPPING SYSTEMS Malik and M.L. Jat, et al
  24. 24. The combination and sequencing of crops with different management practices and under different environmental conditions Interaction occurring in crop rotations, intercropping, green manures and cover crops and their effect on the long term performance of the cropping systems CROPPING SYSTEMS Krupnik et.al CIMMYT-GCAP
  25. 25. Amazing technological breakthrough More for less: better, easier, faster and cheaper Gerard et al. , Soil Sci. Plant Nutr.1997 CIMMYT 2013 Photo: J. Cairns
  26. 26. False color image of CIMMYT station at Obregon, Mexico acquired from multispectral camera at 1 m resolution on Feb. 15, 2013. Collaborative research with QuantaLab, Cordoba/Spain
  27. 27. Thermal image of CIMMYT station at Obregon, Mexico acquired from the thermal camera at 2 m resolution on Feb. 14, 2013. Well-watered (cooler) plots are shown in blue, while water-stressed (warmer) plots are shown in green and red Collaborative research with QuantaLab, Cordoba/Spain
  28. 28. Farm level benefits in RWCS of IGP • ~7 % gain in crop productivity • ~20 % (18 ha-cm yr-1) saving in irrigation water, • US$ 113 to 175 ha-1 higher system profitability • 10-13 % higher agronomic efficiency of nitrogen Laser land leveling is a precursor technology to CA A success story in India Source: Jat et al, 2005, 2006, 2009a,b,2011 Current # 25000
  29. 29. Mapping soil variability (EM38)
  30. 30. Priorities • Recommendation domains for intensification at different granularities (regional, national, landscape, farm, field) • Yield gap and risk assessment (link with crop insurance, credit) • Ex-ante assessment of information needs at extension and farmer levels • Improved management practices (water, nutrients, tillage, timing) and prototype site specific recommendations through ICT models
  31. 31. Priorities (cont.) • Upscaling/downscaling: On-farm trials - Proxi-sensors – UAV/airborne – spaceborne • Data articulation/fusion/assimilation –Vegetation, soil, climate/weather, socio- economic, markets • Cross-regional learning! • Additional partnership with ARIs • Public-private partnership (i.e BASF, Syngenta, crop ins., RS) • Capacity building of NARS and extension services
  32. 32. www.maize.org
  • SunilShrinag

    Mar. 24, 2019
  • ashokght

    Jul. 9, 2018
  • SourceTrace

    Jun. 2, 2017
  • dsantosricci

    May. 16, 2017
  • lineudc

    Mar. 12, 2016
  • ThomasAshman1

    Sep. 25, 2015
  • ConservationAgCornell

    Sep. 29, 2014
  • zonerag

    Aug. 29, 2014
  • vhbmsp

    Jun. 21, 2014

Presentation delivered by Dr. Bruno Gerard (Global Conservation Agriculture Program, CIMMYT) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. http://www.borlaug100.org

Views

Total views

4,566

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

17

Actions

Downloads

351

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

9

×