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Central & West Asia and North Africa: Where Wheat Improvement Matters

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Presentation delivered by Dr. Mahmoud El Solh (Director General, ICARDA) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.
http://www.borlaug100.org

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Central & West Asia and North Africa: Where Wheat Improvement Matters

  1. 1. Mahmoud El Solh Director General International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Central & West Asia and North Africa: Where Wheat Improvement Matters Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security Wheat Science, prospects and Perspective CENEB-CIMMYT, Cd. Obregon, Mexico 27 March, 2014
  2. 2. Outline 1. Why Wheat Matters in CWANA? 2. Main drivers of increased Wheat Productivity in the past; 3. Current challenges facing Wheat Production in CWANA; 4. The role of ICARDA in generating and promoting Wheat Technologies in collaboration with Partners; 5. Bridging the Yield Gap and the Impact of Improved Wheat Technologies in Selected Countries; 6. Partnerships, Future Emphasis/Looking Ahead.
  3. 3.  Wheat is the staple food crop of strategic importance in the region;  The region is home to almost a billion people;  Wheat in CWANA covers about 54 million ha which is ~ 50% of the wheat production area in the developing world;  The highest wheat per capita consumption is in Morocco (220 kg per capita per year)  Lifting wheat subsidies led to social unrest and riots in Egypt, Morocco, Jordan and other countries;  Except for Kazakhstan, Syria (before 2011), and Turkey all CWANA countries are wheat importers;  Egypt is the largest wheat importer (imports up to 10 million tons) CWANA 1. Why Wheat Matters in CWANA?
  4. 4. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Population(1000M) FoodConsumption(Mt) Year Barley Maize Rice Wheat CWANA Population CWANA Population & Consumption of Major Field Crops
  5. 5.  Wheat = 37% of total food supply (calories) in MENA  Average annual per capita consumption: • North Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) = 174 kg • Middle East = 158kg • Total MENA = 166kg • World average = 66kg  Currently, the region imports more than half its wheat needs, at an increasing cost Wheat: the staple food in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region
  6. 6. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Yield(t/Ha) Area(MHa) Production(Mt) Year Area Production Yield CWANA, with average area of 54 million ha, covers 50% of the wheat production area in the developing world CWANA Wheat Area, Production and Yield
  7. 7. 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.4 2.4 2.7 3.1 5.7 8.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Averageyearimports(Mt) Average net wheat imports (million tons) (2005-2011) Average net wheat imports (million tons) in CWANA Countries (2005-2011)
  8. 8. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 PriceIndex ANNUAL FOOD PRICE INDICES 1990-2011 (2002- 2004=100) Food Price Index Meat Price Index Dairy Price Index Cereals Price Index Oils Price Index Sugar Price Index Source: FAO 2011. http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/foodpricesindex/en/ Global changes in prices indices of major foods including wheat
  9. 9. Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008 FAO. Impact of food price increases on balance trade In CWANA countries
  10. 10. Impact of the Food Crisis Most CWANA countries are moving from food self reliance to self sufficiency
  11. 11.  Adoption of input responsive semi-dwarf widely adapted wheat varieties (Dr Norman Borlaug varieties);  Adoption and application of inputs (fertilizer, irrigation water, herbicides, etc.);  International Wheat Improvement Network and Capacity Development (CIMMYT and ICARDA);  Increase in international prices of wheat;  Favorable policy environment and government subsidies;  And to a lesser extent change in wheat area; 2. Main Drivers of Increased Wheat Yield in the Past
  12. 12.  Water scarcity and more frequent drought;  Soil degradation;  Reduced supply and increasing cost of inputs e.g. fertilizers, fuel etc.;  Climate Change & Global warming;  Emerging pests and diseases;  Increasing demand for energy (biofuel); Increasing world population: 8 billion in 2030 ; 9.2 billion in 2050 Tends in Wheat Production Area and Yield in the World & CWANA, 1961-2010 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 yield(t/ha) Area(Millha) CWANA Area (ha) World Area (ha) CWANA Yield (t/ha) World Yield (t/ha) 3. Current challenges for increasing wheat production in CWANA
  13. 13. Relative change of mean annual precipitation 1980/1999 to 2080/2099, scenario A1b, average of 21 GCMs (compiled by GIS Unit ICARDA, based on partial maps in Christensen et al., 2007) Relative change of mean annual precipitation 1980/1999 to 2080/2099
  14. 14. Abiotic stresses • Drought • Heat • Cold • Salinity • Pre-harvest loses including sprouting • Lodging Biotic stresses • Yellow rust • Stem rust • Leaf rust • Fusarium • Septoria • Tan spot • Common bunt • Root rots • Hessian Fly • Russian Wheat Aphid • Sunn Pest • Weeds Major Production constraints in CWANA Countries
  15. 15. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 10000000 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Yield(t/ha) Area(ha)&production(tons Year Production Area Yield Effect of drought on wheat production in Morocco
  16. 16.  Production loss of cultivar Achtar : 100,000 ton Monetary: $ 30 m US dollars  Estimated Yield loss in Gereck : 40% Monetary loss : > $52 m US dollars  Syria: Cham 8, Cham 6 : 30-80 % yield loss  Ethiopia : Attila (Kubsa): 40-70% yield loss Recurrence of Stripe/Yellow Rust in CWANA
  17. 17. 4. The role of ICARDA in generating and promoting Wheat Technologies in collaboration with Partners
  18. 18.  Conservation and use of genetic diversity of crops and wild relatives of importance to dry areas;  Crop genetic improvement: through plant breeding/biotechnology and improved crop management of winter cereals, food legumes and forage crops;  Plant protection through resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses and IPM practices;  Enhancing water productivity and integrated sustainable water management;  Diversification and sustainable intensification of production systems;  Resilience of production systems in marginal lands of dry areas;  Conservation agriculture: conservations of soil moisture and reducing cost of production and energy use;  Social, economic and policy research and institutional innovations and support;  Capacity development & networking. 36 Years of Experience in Basic and Applied Research in Non-Tropical Dry Areas
  19. 19. • High yield potential and broad adaptation; • Durable resistance/tolerance to major diseases and insect pests; • Tolerance to Drought, heat, cold and salinity; • Grain quality; • Capacity building of NARS and Networking ICARDA Wheat Genetic Improvement Program Objectives
  20. 20. Taxon Number of accessions Wheat 37,816 Barley 28,999 Wild Cereals/Wheat wild relatives 8242 Faba bean 12,585 Lentil 10,889 Chickpea 14,544 Wild Lens and Cicer 929 Forage legumes 31,719 Forage and range species 7611 Total 153,334 ICARDA Gene Bank Holdings
  21. 21. • Classification and targeting major environments; • Shuttle breeding; • Biotechnological Tools including Marker assisted selection; • Mining desirable genes and the use of wide crosses involving wild relatives (Synthetics) for desirable traits; • Screening for durable resistance/tolerance to diseases and insect pests in hot spots; • Multi-location testing; Approaches to increase wheat breeding efficiency
  22. 22. Syria Tel Hadya* Lebanon Terbol Morocco Merchouch Egypt SidsEthiopia Kulumsa Turkey Ankara Izmir Sudan Wad- Medani ICARDA’s Key Locations for Wheat Shuttle Breeding Terbol (Lebanon): Adaptation, yield potential, seed multiplication, off- season rust, international nurseries. Merchouch (Morocco): Rainfed wheat, drought tolerance, insect resistance, virology. Kulumsa (Ethiopia): Stem Rust(Ug99), Stripe Rust, Fusarium, Septoria. Sids (Egypt): High input irrigated wheat, yield potential, earliness. Wad-Medani (Sudan): Heat tolerance, earliness (short season wheat). Ankara (Turkey): International Winter Wheat Program (IWWP). Izmir (Turkey): Wheat rusts with emphasis on stripe/yellow rust, international Trap Rusts Nurseries. * Activities currently suspended in Tel Hadya, Syria
  23. 23. FIGS - Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy Link environmental data to collection sites Adapted from diagram by D T F Endresen (NGB) Choose accessions from that environments that would impose a selection pressure for a given trait: e.g.: for heat tolerance, select material from environments where there is a high selection pressure Gene Mining Using FIGS
  24. 24. Sunn pest – first time in bread wheat RWA resistance – new genes inditified Hessian fly - resistance to US bio-type Powdery mildew – 2 new functional genes Salinity – 20% of salinity set showed resistance compared to only 3% of core set Drought – FIGS accessions performed better than core set FIGS Results: Success Verified & Impact
  25. 25.  About 732 wheat landraces and wild relatives have been identified through FIGs approach and were screened for resistance to Stripe Rust and Septoria for two years (2011-2012).  As shown in this Figure: 9 genotypes of T. monococcum; 12 genotypes of T. timopheevii; 94 genotypes of T. turgidum and 15 genotypes of T. aestivum have been identified with high level of resistance to both Stripe Rust and Septoria diseases.  These genotypes are being used in the pre-breeding program for gene pyramiding. Triticum aestivum , 15 Triticum timophee vii , 12 Triticum turgidum, 94 Triticum monococcum 9 Wheat accessions with high of combined resistance to Stripe Rust and Septoria, 2011-2012.
  26. 26. Y irr; Y RF; YR; * < 0.01 Source: Tadesse, 2013 Association mapping for Yield Potential, Drought Tolerance and Stripe Rust Resistnce
  27. 27.  Synthetics have exponentially increased genetic diversity in wheat • Increased yield under drought and favorable irrigated conditions ; • Multiple disease resistance • Leaf, stem, and yellow rusts • Yellow Leaf Spot (= tan spot) resistance • Nematode resistance • Septoria leaf blotch resistance • Insect pests tolerance e.g. Sunn pest, Russian Wheat apphids • Tolerance abiotic Stresses • Drought tolerance • Heat tolerance • Salinity tolerance • Pre-harvest sprouting tolerance  After introducing a novel DD genome (Ae. tauschii), now work starting on using novel AABB genome (T. dicoccoides and T. dicoccum) in new synthetics. Contribution of Synthetic Wheat
  28. 28. (Syria) (Syria) (Lebanon) Source: Ogbonnaya et al. 2010 Grain Yield of Synthetic Bread Wheat Genotypes against recurrent parent , Cham 6.
  29. 29. Parent Variety Yield t/ha % recurrent parent Cham 6*2/SW2 1.6 147 Cham 6*2/SW2 1.5 138 Cham-6 1.10 100 Attila-7 1.3 - Yield of “synthetic derivatives” compared to parents under drought stress. (Tel Hadya 2008 -- 211 mm) Wheat crossed with wild relatives: Synthetic wheat, tolerance to excessive drought
  30. 30. T. boeoticum T. urartu T. dicoccoides yellow rust resistance leaf rust resistance earliness high productive tillering spike productivity plant productivity plant height drought tolerance Sunn pest resistance Russian wheat aphid resistance Septoria tritici resistance Ae. speltoides probably different from Yr15 New sources for desirable traits for wheat through wide crosses with wild relatives
  31. 31. Durable Resistance/Tolerance to Insect Pests & Diseases and Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  32. 32. Hessian Fly Resistant Variety Hessian fly causes economic damage in North Africa Resistant lines Resistance/Tolerance to Hessian Fly in Wheat
  33. 33.  Effects > 15 million ha in West and Central Asia & Eastern Europe;  Sunn pest injects enzyme that decomposes grain gluten, vital for bread baking;  If 2-3% of a grain lot is infested, entire wheat lot is ruined with respect to baking quality IPM: Sunn Pest in wheat
  34. 34. • Hand collection of Sunn pest in overwintering sites • Use of insect-killing fungi in overwintering sites • Enhancement and conservation of egg parasitoids/predators • Genetic resistance at early vegetative stage Sunn Pest IPM Options in wheat
  35. 35. 0 50 100 150 200 250 2001 2002 2003 Years 127 193 231 300 277 2004 Sprayedareas(1000ha) 282 2005 232 2006 185 117 2007 2008 2009 87 Evolution of area sprayed against Sunn Pest in Syria
  36. 36. Heavy yellow rust infestation wheat in West Asia in 2010 Black stem rust (Ug 99) infestation in Ethiopia & Kenya Surveillance & Resistance to Rust Diseases
  37. 37. ICARDA Distribution of Regional Rust Trap Nurseries in 80 locations in 32 countries, 2009/10
  38. 38. Released varieties resistances to black stem and yellow rust in Ethiopia Resistances to new races of yellow rust in West Asia in 2010 Resistance to Rust Diseases in Wheat
  39. 39. ICARDA implemented regional and bilateral projects with focus to promote the development and dissemination of wheat varieties resistant to Stripe and Black Stem (Ug99) Rusts: • USAID Famine Fund (Egypt, Ethiopia, Pakistan) • Three bilateral projects in Ethiopia (USAID), Iraq (USAID) and Pakistan (USDA) Fast track testing and release Accelerated seed multiplication Popularization /demonstration Scaling-out of technologies Strengthening NARS Capacity Farmers Fast Track Variety Release and Accelerated Seed Multiplication and Delivery of Rust Resistant Varieties
  40. 40. 1. Wheat rust resistant varieties released by Egypt (2), Ethiopia (8) and Pakistan (9) 2. Amount of certified seed of rust resistant varieties produced by NARS (in collaboration with CIMMYT and ICARDA) and distributed; • Egypt: 15,725 MT sufficient to plant 9% of wheat area, 2011/12; • Ethiopia: 27,000 MT sufficient to plant 10% wheat area, 2012/13; • Pakistan: 42,750 MT sufficient to plant 5% of wheat area, 2011/12 3. Popularization and promotion of rust resistant varieties reaching close to 5,000 farmers every year 4. Farmer-based seed production in rainfed areas of Pakistan (6 districts planted 17.22 ha of 7 varieties and produced 56.18 MT at an average profit of $348/ha) USAID Famine Fund (2009-12): Egypt, Ethiopia and Pakistan
  41. 41. Both formal and informal approaches used in accelerated seed production and distribution of rust resistant varieties developed by NARS in collaboration both CIMMYT and ICARDA with public-private partnership: • NARS (federal and regional) produced about 6,021 MT seed of rust resistant wheat varieties and successfully distributed for different purposes; • About 815 MT seed distributed directly to farmers which was planted on 5,660 ha producing 18,718 MT potentially sufficient to plant 127,377 ha; • About 19,877 farmers (7.3% women) reached benefitting 119,262 HH members through on-farm seed production, technology scaling-out and emergency seed relief; • Farmer seed associations and public and private sector produced a combined 5526 MT seed for further seed multiplication; • Public and private sector distributed a combined 85,943 MT seed of rust resistant varieties sufficient to plant 572,956 ha of wheat area in 2012/13. Rapid Deployment of Rust Resistant Varieties (2011/12-): Ethiopia
  42. 42. USAID Seed Production Project: Field Inspection
  43. 43. USAID Seed Production Project: Farmers’ Day
  44. 44. Wheat Productivity Enhancement Program (2011-): Pakistan • 2600 MT seed of promising lines/new varieties produced under pre- and post release seed multiplication (148 MT of exclusively Ug99 resistant lines/varieties) and provided to public and/or private seed companies; • 284 MT seed was produced with farmers in dryland areas of Punjab and KPK with average net returns from seed activities of $337/ha; • 494 MT seed produced from popularization and demonstration of new rust resistant (164.8 MT exclusively Ug99 resistant varieties) with net return of $227/ha. HSAD strengthening wheat seed system (2013-14): Iraq • A total of 5904 MT seed of high yielding and stress tolerant wheat varieties were multiplied by NARS and large-scale seed producers: • 1.31 MT seed of pre-release (11 promising lines) ; • 2200 MT breeder and foundation seed (13 varieties) produced by NARS with resistance to yellow rust; • 3703 MT registered and certified seed (6 varieties) produced by seed companies with resistance to yellow rusts. Enhancing Wheat Productivity in Pakistan and Iraq
  45. 45. Varietal Releases, Yield Potential & Desirable Traits
  46. 46. 1977 - 2013 Recent years Crop Developing Countries Industrialized Countries All Countries Barley 186 31 11 Durum Wheat 111 14 9 Bread Wheat 230 6 6 Chickpea 110 31 2 Faba Bean 54 6 3 Lentil 101 16 5 Forages 31 2 1 Peas 9 0 0 Sub-Total 814 106 37 Total 920 37 Estimated Net Benefit = about US $850 m / year Improvement Varieties Released by NARS Partners Using ICARDA Germplasm 376
  47. 47.  High yield potential  Tolerance to abiotic stresses: - Drought - Heat - Cold - Salinity  Resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses - Diseases - Insect pests - Parasitic weeds Desirable Traits of Varieties Released
  48. 48. Variety Name Type Cross/Pedigree Year of Release Country SIDS-13 SBW KAUZ//TSI/SNB 2010 Egypt HOGGANA SBW PYN/BAU//MILAN (= ETBW 5780 2011 Ethiopia SHORIMA SBW UTQE96/3/PYN/BAU//MILAN 2011 Ethiopia HULUKA SBW UTQE96/3/PYN/BAU//MILAN 2011 Ethiopia KARIM SBW T.AEST/SPRW//CA8055/3/BACANORA86 2011 Iran GOUMRIA-3 SBW VEE#7/KAUZ 2013 Sudan GIZIL BUGDA FWW SAULESKU41/SADOVO1 2009 Azerbaijan CHUMON FWW CADET/6/YUMAI13/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//CI13441/CANON 2012 Tajikistan TACICAR FWW OR F1.158/FDL//BLO/3/SHI4414/CROW 2012 Tajikistan BUNIYODKOR FWW DORADE-5//KS82117/MLT 2012 Uzbekistan RIJAW FWW PATO/CAL/3/7C//BB/CNO/5/CAL//CNO/SN64/4/CNO//BAD/C HR/3/KL../6/SABALAN 2011 Iran HUMA FWW PYN/PARUS/3/VPM/MOS83-11-4-8//PEW/4/BLUGIL 2011 Uzbekistan MUKYE DW STJ3//BCR/LKS4/3/TER-3 2012 Ethiopia ACHOURI DW MRF1/STJ2//GDR2/MGNL1 2012 Algeria BANI SUEF 4 DW IANZEN 1 2008 Egypt Recently released wheat cultivars by NARSs in collaboration with ICARDA
  49. 49. HessianFlyResistant Genotype Yield (t/ha) % of Arrehane (Check) KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 6.93 131 TINAMOU-3/BANA-4 6.59 125 NESSER/SERI/3/SHUHA-2//NS732/HER 6.51 123 MUNIA//CHEN/ALTAR 84/3/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//BCN/4/MARCHOUCH-8 6.37 121 NESSER/SERI//TEVEE-1/SHUHA-6 6.33 120 KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 6.32 120 YEBROUD'S'//DOVE'S'/SERI/3/SAFI-1 6.17 117 SHUHA-4/FLORKWA-4//HUBARA-3 6.07 115 KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 6.05 115 TEVEE-1/SHUHA-6//MASSIRA 5.99 114 CHILERO-1/STAR'S'//SHUHA-2/FOW-2 5.93 112 NESSER/SERI/3/SHUHA-2//NS732/HER 5.92 112 NESSER/SERI//TEVEE-1/SHUHA-6 5.92 112 MUNIA//CHEN/ALTAR 84/3/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//BCN/4/MARCHOUCH-8 5.87 111 KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 5.70 108 QIMMA-12/PASTOR-6//QIMMA-12 5.65 107 KARAWAN-1/TALLO 3//REGRAG-1 5.64 107 ALTAR 84/AE.SQUARROSA (219)//SERI/3/MASSIRA 5.63 107 ALTAR 84/AE.SQUARROSA (219)//SERI/3/MASSIRA 5.62 107 KARAWAN-1/TALLO 3//JADIDA-2 5.58 106 Arrehane (check) 5.27 100 Potential of Synthetics derived Spring Bread Wheat Genotypes, Yield, Drought Tolerance and Hessian Fly Resistance Rianfed, Merchouch, Morocco, 2013
  50. 50. NAME PEDIGREE Yield (t/ha) ATTILA/3*BCN//FLAG-2 ICW06-00784-21AP/0KUL-0DZ/0AP- 0DZ/0AP-5AP-0AP 11.1 FLAG-3/ICARDA-SRRL-5 ICW06-00858-7AP/0KUL-0DZ/0AP- 0DZ/0AP-5AP-0AP 10.6 FLAG-6/ICARDA-SRRL-6 ICW06-00859-19AP/0KUL-0DZ/0AP- 0DZ/0AP-2AP-0AP 10.3 SERI 82/SHUHA'S'//GRU90- 204782/3/MUNIA/CHTO//MILAN AISBW05-0252-1AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 10.2 KAUZ'S'/SERI/4/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//FCT/3/STAR AISBW05-0259-11AP-0AP-0AP-4AP -0SD 10.0 KATILA-15//MNCH/3*BCN ICW05-0481-2AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.9 SERI 82/SHUHA'S'//GRU90- 204782/3/MUNIA/CHTO//MILAN AISBW05-0252-1AP-0AP-0AP-3AP-0AP 9.9 SERI.1B*2/3/KAUZ*2/BOW//KAUZ/4/KAUZ/FLORKWA-1 AISBW05-0390-7AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.8 KAUZ'S'/SERI/4/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//FCT/3/STAR AISBW05-0259-4AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.8 KAUZ'S'/SERI/3/KAUZ//KAUZ/STAR AISBW05-0088-1AP-0AP-0AP-3AP -0SD 9.6 ATTILA 50Y//ATTILA/BCN/3/STAR*3/MUSK-3 AISBW05-0043-10AP-0AP-0AP-7AP-0AP 9.6 DEBEIRA/4/KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS/3/KAUZ ICW05-0597-2AP-0AP-0AP-4AP-0AP 9.5 KASYON/GENARO 81//TEVEE-1/../4/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//BCN/3/KAUZ AISBW05-0112-12AP-0AP-0AP-2AP -0SD 9.5 DEBEIRA/4/KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS/3/KAUZ ICW05-0597-8AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.5 KAUZ/AA//KAUZ/3/KAPSW/SHUHA-17 AISBW05-0321-4AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.4 BOUSHODA-1/4/SHUHA-2/3/BOW'S'/NKT'S'//TEVEE'S' ICW05-0521-3AP-0AP-0AP-2AP -0SD 9.4 KAUZ//MON/CROW?S?/4/SERI.1B//KAUZ/HEVO/3/AMAD ICW05-0534-22AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.4 ATTILA 50Y//ATTILA/BCN/3/STAR*3/MUSK-3 AISBW05-0043-10AP-0AP-0AP-5AP-0AP 9.3 KAUZ//MON/CROW?S?/3/VEE/PJN//2*KAUZ ICW05-0512-20AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 9.3 DEBIRA 9.3 MISR-1 9.7 SIDS-12 9.3 Yield Potential of Heat Tolerance Elite Spring Bread Wheat Genotypes, Sids-Egypt, 2013
  51. 51. Yield potential of newly developed durum genotypes at ICARDA durum breeding program 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Miki1 OuaserlOuasloukos Ouaserl Aghrass2Amedakul1 Haurani (Landrace) Korifla (Impr) Kg/ha Yield Potential of recently developed Durum Wheat genotypes at ICARDA
  52. 52. 5. Bridging the Yield Gap and Impact of Improved Wheat Technologies
  53. 53.  Actual farm yields of wheat in the CWANA region are far below their potential.  Evidence shows that productivity can be increased substantially;  If production of wheat is to exceed population growth rates, yields must increase further.  Limited scope for expansion in area  Future increases in production must come from sustainable intensification of wheat-based production system. Wheat Productivity in CWANA Region
  54. 54. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Algeria Egypt Ethiopia Morocco Syria Turkey Countryyield(tha-1) Real (Average 2007/2011; FAOSTAT) Experimental 6. Wheat Yield Gap Analysis in Selected Countries
  55. 55. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Experimental Station Yield Potential Farm Yield Actual Farm Yield Yield Gap II Yield Gap I Biological constraints • Variety • Water • Weeds • Diseases and insect pests • Soil Fertility • Soil Problems e.g. salinity Socioeconomic constraints • Input availability • Costs and returns • Credit • Prices • Tradition and altitudes • Knowledge • Input availability • Institutions and Policies Tons/ha Example, Wheat in Tunisia Bridging the Yield Gap in Wheat Progressive Farmers Yield Traditional Farmers Yield Experimental Station Yield
  56. 56. Morocco Syria (rainfed)Gap Analysis Settat-Berrechid (rainfed) Tadla (irrigated) Gap 1 (kg/ha) 1028 2115 1655 Gap 2 (kg/ha) 2228 3825 2520 Gap 1 (%) 88% 45% 82% Gap 2 (%) 192% 82% 125% Gap 1 = difference between average farmers’ yield and research station/on-farm demonstration yield Gap 2 = difference between average farmers’ yield and simulated potential yield Wheat yield gap analysis: Morocco and Syria
  57. 57. Gaps between national average yields and progressive farmers yields Wheat Yield Gap in Syria
  58. 58.  Formerly a wheat importer, the country (before the unfortunate developments that started in 2011) was self-sufficient, and even an exporter of wheat (1-2 million tons) in reasonable good rainy seasons.  Between 1991 and 2004 wheat production rose from 2.1 million to 4.5 million tons, with a combination of new high-yielding varieties (1/3), supplemental irrigation technology (1/3) and more inputs (1/3) with supportive government policies. Impact of Bridging the Yield Gap in Syria
  59. 59. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Production(milliontons) Wheatarea(millionha) Precipitation(100mm) Area Needed Precipitation Actual Area Linear (Area Trend) Actual Production Linear (Production Trend) . Impact of improved wheat technologies in Syria
  60. 60. Socio-economic & policy, and institutional support Sustainable Natural resource management and inputs Crop & livestock genetic improvement Integration at field and farmers levels The integrated approach involving the three pillars of sustainable agricultural intensification
  61. 61. I R I I R I R I Participating Farmers 8.1 2.4 4.9 3.7 2.6 6.3 2.7 6.0 Non Participating Farmers 6.3 1.9 4.4 2.4 2.2 5.6 2.1 4.6 Ave. increase (%) 22 21 11 58 20 13 23 30 Max yield 9.1 3.2 6.5 5.6 4.2 8.2 3.7 8.8 Average Yield Increase= 25 % Maximum Yield Increase= 75 % Egypt Yemen Morocco Sudan Syria Tunisia Impact of Bridging Yield Gap in Wheat in Selected Countries under Rainfed (R) and Irrigated Systems Food Security Project: 2011/2012
  62. 62. Raised-bed Planting
  63. 63. Furrows irrigation Flat bed irrigation Raised bed irrigation
  64. 64. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Yield (t/ha) Water consumption(000m3/ha) WUE(kg/m3) Raised bed Flat surface Egypt Advantage of raised bed planting Average of 2011 and 2012 30 % increase in grain yield 25 % saving in irrigation water 72 % increase in WUE
  65. 65. Average wheat productivity in 2009/2010 and 2012- 2013 in Al-Sharkia Governorate:  It was 6.2 t/ha in 2010 and reached 7.2 t/ha in 2013;  It was less than the national mean by 7% in 2010 and higher by 4% in 2013;  National Productivity was 6.5 t/ha in 2010 and it reached 6.7 t/ha in 2013. Project on "Enhancing Food Security in Arab Countries", March 2014 Impact of Large Scale On-Farm Demonstration in Egypt
  66. 66.  Egypt: Based on the results obtained in Al-Sharkia Governorate, National Campaign for improvement of wheat followed the Al- Sharkia approach for the dissemination of technologies: more than 1000 demonstration fields on improved wheat production technologies were planted during 2011-2012 and 2012 -2013 seasons in 22 Governorates in addition to the Governorate of Al-Sharkia which was used a pilot project site in Egypt. This expansion effort was supported by national funds amounting to 8.7 million EGP (about 1.300,000USD) in 3 years.  Tunisia: The approach is being replicated in other wheat producing provinces based on the efficient extension methodology developed by the project in the country. Spillover of Food Security Project Model
  67. 67. Impact of Heat-Tolerant Wheat in Sudan
  68. 68. All the work done by ICARDA in wheat is aligned under the Wheat CRP (CRP3.1) led by CIMMYT and in collaboration with CIMMYT and  National Agricultural Research Systems;  Advanced Research Institutes;  IFAD, FAO and Other UN Organizations;  Civil society organizations including NGOs;  Private Sector;  Donors. Partnerships and Institutional Linkages7. Partnerships and Collaborators
  69. 69.  Establish/strengthen multi-disciplinary regional & international cooperation & networking through the Wheat CRP;  Strengthen the consortium on hybrid wheat and innovative research to enhance yield potential including C4 wheat, N-fixing wheat;  Strengthen the use of biotechnological tools including Genomic Selection (GS) approaches;  Sustainable intensification of wheat based systems;  Strengthen and promote IPM options;  Promote further Conservative Agriculture in dryland systems;  Enhancing water use efficiency through deficit and supplemental irrigation and modernization of irrigation systems;  Improve access to improved seeds through effective seed production & delivery systems (formal & informer; public and private);  Capacity development of NARS partners & Networking. 7. Future Emphasis/Looking Ahead
  70. 70. ICARDA Site identification team, 1975: Dr Norman Borlaug, Official from Syrian Ministry of Agriculture, Dr Bob Havner, Dr Jit Srivastiva and Mr Faek Bahady History of ICARDA’s birth, 1975
  71. 71. THANK YOU

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