Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Borlaug's Scientific Legacy

1,624 views

Published on

Presentation delivered by Dr. Hans-Joachim Braun (Global Wheat Program, CIMMYT) at Borlaug Summit on Wheat for Food Security. March 25 - 28, 2014, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico.
http://www.borlaug100.org

Published in: Services
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Borlaug's Scientific Legacy

  1. 1. Norman Borlaug’s Scientific Legacies in Wheat
  2. 2. “The seriousness or magnitude of the world food problem should not be underestimated. Recent success in expanding wheat, rice and maize production in Asian countries offers the possibility of buying 20-30 years of time.” - Norman Borlaug, 1969 An Outspoken Visionary Did we use this time to get ready for the next Green Revolution?
  3. 3. Developing Regions Developed Regions World Wheat Rice C-Grains Other All Crops %ChangeChanges for production relative to baseline year 2004 in absence of crop productivity gains from crop germplasm improvement for 1965-2004 Stevenson et al. 2012.
  4. 4. The percentage of people living on less than $1.25 /day fell from 47% in 1990 to 22% in 2010 Globally, the proportion of undernourished people decreased from 23% in 1990 to 15% UN Millennium Development Goals
  5. 5. In 2012, 1.2 billion people were still living in extreme poverty Today, more people in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa live today with less than $1.50 /day than the entire population at beginning of the Green Revolution The number of people living on less than $2 /day is the same as in 1981 This is exacerbated by slower grain yield increases, climate change, resource scarcity, salinization... However…
  6. 6. Global Mean Wheat Yield 1961 -2013 Years to increase yield by 500 kg/ha 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 10 years 12 years 13 years 12 years ?? years 536 kg 501 kg 454 kg 524 kg
  7. 7. Global Yield Projection Scenarios for Wheat until 2050 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 2022 2026 2030 2034 2038 2042 2046 2050 2.4%/ year Double 2010 Production same as past Already a challenge 1.6%/year FAO target 100 million tons shortage 300 million tons shortage
  8. 8. It is not too late to make a BIG difference
  9. 9. Countries that have released Mexican semi-dwarf wheat varieties or lines derived from crosses with Mexican parental lines Direct release Derived from crosses with Mexican wheats
  10. 10. January-April average min. temperature C° 7.58.08.59.09.510.010.511.011.5 WheatyieldYaquiValley(Ton/Ha) 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 2010 2011 2006 2007 2002 2008 2000 2004 2005 2003 2001 2012 2009 2013 y= 11.55 - 0.65X r2 =0.75 Relationship between mean wheat grain yield in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, and minimum temperature from January to April (1979-2013) 20C increase = 1400 kg’ha lower yield
  11. 11. Average agronomic performance of 5 best lines derived from “yield potential crosses” compared to mean of 5 checks. 2nd WYCYT 2013: unpublished Yield kg/ha Biomass HI 5 Best YP lines 7620 1716 0.45 Mean 5 checks 7250 1572 0.46 % 5.2 9.1 -3.2
  12. 12. Crossing Shuttle breeding in Mexico, two crops per year Evaluation in Mexico and hot spot sites worldwide Distribution of improved germplasm through IWIN Collection and interpretation of multi-location data Shuttle Breeding / Speed Data collected worldwide, used in centralized program
  13. 13. Genotypes Sites Data Points / Observations Yield Trials 16,560 28,800 11,690,400 Observation Nurseries 53,805 29,120 16,283,850 Total 70,365 57,920 27,974,250 Pedigrees 548,443 International Nursery Statistics since 1964* *Including Turkey/CIMMYT/ICARDA winter wheat
  14. 14. Countries that have requested CIMMYT international nurseries since 1967 International Wheat Improvement Network Co-operator Award
  15. 15. All cooperators that return data will be entered into a raffle. The two winners will be invited to visit CIMMYT’s Wheat Program! International Nursery Award
  16. 16. Wide Adaptation and Global Climate Change Yield, rust resistance, heat and drought tolerance enduse quality; the package to cope with global climate change Countries that have released the same line or sister lines
  17. 17. Breeding wheat germplasm with increased yield potential, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and end-use quality Njoro, Kenya Stem rust (Ug99 group), Yellow rust Shuttle (Speed) and International testing
  18. 18. Comparison of grain yield performance of 602 bread wheat entries retained for international distribution in 2014 when selected under Mexico shuttle and Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding schemes Data source: Cd. Obregon 2012/13; yield trials under irrigated conditions on flat and bed planting systems 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 100-104 105-109 110-114 115-119 No.ofentries(%) Grain yield (% Roelfs) Mexico shuttle (mean 101%) Mexico-Kenya Shuttle (mean 101%)
  19. 19. WW Heat Drought Rusts Yield Heat Drought YR, LR FHS, Sep YR Blast Multiple Disease Resistance Heat Drought H-Fly LR-DW Yield Ug 99 Rust Septoria Sept DW Yield Yield Heat Dry Heat Humid Drought) FHS Yield Heat Global phenotyping platform network for Wheat Improvement targeted at Less-developed Country Priority Traits Operating costs from 500 K – 1 M + / year / Platform Precision phenotyping, early access by NARS breeders to elite germplasm
  20. 20. The world collection was estimated by Konopka & Valkoun, ICARDA Source: M. Kishii, CIMMYT Use of wheat wild relatives in world collections for wheat improvement Genome CIMMYT World No. Utilized % used Triticum dicoccum AABB 779 ?? 24 3 Triticum dicoccoides AABB 880 1390 31 2 Triticum timopheevii AAGG 280 640 2 0 Triticum monococcum AA 880 1520 120 8 Triticum urartu AA 392 516 21 4 Aegilops speltoides (~BB) SS 140 540 34 6 Aegilops bicornis (~BB) SbSb 14 28 0 0 Aegilops longissima (~BB) SlSl 10 59 2 3 Aegilops tauschii DD 400~600 1144 400 35
  21. 21. Triticale: Norman Borlaug’s unfinished business?
  22. 22. Country of origin for wheat trainees attending the CIMMYT wheat improvement course 1963 – 2014 Countries Total participants Female Participants 1968-05 76 784 73 2006-14 30 252 62
  23. 23. We have the means, we have the capacity to eliminate hunger from the face of this earth. We need only the will. John F. Kennedy, 1961
  24. 24. Dr. Borlaug’s last words were: “Take it to the farmers,” when he talked to Art Klatt and Bill Raun about the Nitrogen- sensor technology. I think no other words could summarize better what Dr. Borlaug stood for. Farmers, poor farmers and their families were always in the center of his thinking. The Ultimate Legacy: Take it to the Farmers This was, is, and will remain the ultimate goal of CIMMYT. If we fail in this aspect, we fail in everything we do and we would not pay the tribute to Norman Borlaug he deserves.
  25. 25. WEEAT WHEAT

×