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Agronomy in the Context of Conservation Agriculture: Nutrient Management

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Remote sensing –Beyond images
Mexico 14-15 December 2013

The workshop was organized by CIMMYT Global Conservation Agriculture Program (GCAP) and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), the Mexican Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA), the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), CGIAR Research Program on Maize, the Cereal System Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) and the Sustainable Modernization of the Traditional Agriculture (MasAgro)

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Agronomy in the Context of Conservation Agriculture: Nutrient Management

  1. 1. Eric Miller, Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, and Bill Raun Beyond Diagnostics: Insights and Recommendations from Remote Sensing December 14th, 2013
  2. 2.   Update on the Trimble® GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor Progress with the OSU singulating hand-held planter ◦ Capable of singulating corn seeds and applying fertilizer nitrogen as urea beneath the soil’s surface
  3. 3. Sensor Extension, Ciudad Obregon, MX Dr. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
  4. 4.  Objective ◦ Develop a small and cost-effective NDVI sensor to duplicate the results of a commercial GreenSeeker sensor (Crain et al., 2012) Picture courtesy of Jared Crain
  5. 5. MSRP $495 USD
  6. 6. Model parameters and analysis of variance; slope equal to 1 and intercept equal to 0 Sensor Readings Parameter of the model† R2 NDVI a b All 0.05 0.97 0.88 Greater than 0.50 -0.08 1.21 Less than 0.50 0.07 0.93 n † a = intercept, b = slope Significance (Pr > F) Intercept Slope 1485 <0.001 0.001 0.72 160 0.002 <0.001 0.78 1325 <0.001 <0.001
  7. 7. #6 Trigo (Mexico) nue.okstate.edu
  8. 8. nue.okstate.edu
  9. 9. Opico Quezaltepeque, El Salvador
  10. 10.      Remove chemically treated seeds from the hands of small farmers Decrease soil erosion via improved plant spacing Accommodate mid-season application of fertilizer (N and P) Place urea below the surface reducing NH3 losses Potential to increase third-world maize production and NUE
  11. 11.   875,098,631 Mg maize 176,991,927 ha of maize ◦ 4.95 Mg ha-1   >50,000,000 ha in the developing world 60% planted by hand ◦ 20,645,000 ha or 13% of the total maize area in the world FAOstat, 2013 Hand Planter Testing: 2013 Ciudad Obregon, MX Dr. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
  12. 12.    seed size (2653-4344 seeds/kg) seed type and shape fertilizer 1,000,000 cycles 0.29g/seed 60,000 seeds/ha 3443 seeds/kg 1.0 kg hopper 17 times refill nue.okstate.edu/Hand_Planter.htm
  13. 13.  Third world maize yields hover near 2.0 Mg ha-1 (Dowswell, et al., 1996) “OSU Hand Planter”
  14. 14. 100 P-450 P-260 Emergence, % 80 R-450 60 R-260 40 T-P450 20 T-P-260 T-R-450 0 T-R-260 4 6 8 10 12 check Days after planting  Maize emergence delayed by as few as four days, resulted in a yield depression of 15 percent (Hodgen et al., 2007)
  15. 15.  Homogeneity in maize plant spacing, plant stands, and emergence can decrease plant-to-plant variation and increase grain yields (Nielsen, 1997; Martin et al., 2005)
  16. 16. Thailand El Salvador Mexico Guatemala Zambia
  17. 17. Questions?

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