CURRENT STATUS OF WHEAT RESEACH ANDPRODUCTION IN NIGERIA  – IMPLICATIONS FOR     FOOD SECURITY         BY      M. D. MAGAJ...
IntroductionIn Nigeria, wheat cultivation dates back to the16th century, when wheat was cultivated onsmall plots and pock...
INTRODUCTIONThe mean maximum temperatureranges from 30o to 35oC during thegrowing period of November toMarch each year.The...
POLITICAL MAP OF NIGERIA                           MAGAJI ET AL., 2012   4
ectectsTo increase wheat Production, there is the need to expand  areas under production and increase the yield of varieti...
In sDespite of the bright prospects and enormous potential of  wheat production in Nigeria, there are challenges such as, ...
Between 1971 and 1981, agricultural import bills, including  those of wheat increased 13-fold from US $192 million to  US ...
Economic Importance of Wheat Wheat in Nigeria is mainly used for bakery and confectionery; it is also  used for domestic ...
RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT• Some of the challenges confronting wheat  production in Nigeria are :• Development of heat toler...
Wheat research dates back to 1959, when local germplasm materials were collected by scientists . These materials were eval...
TABLE1: WHEAT VARIETIES RELEASED AND REGISTERED                            IN NIGERIAName of Variety     Original Name    ...
Lake Chad Research Institute, incollaboration with CIMMYT hasdeveloped and released improvedwheat varieties that are early...
ACHIEVEMENTS AND CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL ECONOMYSerial   Crop & Name               Year of         Yield potential     Ad...
COLLABORATORS• CIMMYT: Wheat Germplasm exchange• ICARDA : Barley Germplasm exchange• ICRISAT: Pearl Millet Germplasm Excha...
CETTIA        SERI M82SERI M 82   CETTIA   ATILLA GAN ATILLA                         MAGAJI ET AL., 2012   15
WHEAT PRODUCTION TREND PeriodsPeriods      Areas cultivated Yield           Areas cultivated Yield         Total productio...
MAGAJI ET AL., 2012   17
AVAILABLE TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES      Serial    Crop & Name               Crop & Name                                ...
TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESManagement practices that ensures efficient use of water for irrigationMeasures that mitigate t...
INPUTS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGETSLand : Expand existing hectarageAdequate supply of improved quality seedsProv...
SEED PRODUCTIONLake Chad Research Institute produces highquality breeder and foundation seeds for seedcompanies, state agr...
EXTENSION SERVICE DELIVERY• Research-Extension-Farmer-  Inputs-Linkage-System (REFILS)  provides a platform for linkages  ...
The Institute also disseminates itsdeveloped technologies throughannual training, annual researchreview and planning meeti...
CHALLENGES• In spite of the prospects and enormous potentials for  wheat production in Nigeria, challenges militating  aga...
• Inadequate supply of good quality seeds.  Poor market arrangement and remuneration to  farmers in Nigeria.• Policy imped...
Policy Issues•Nigeria requires 3.7 million metric tons of wheatannually and spends about 635 billion Naira (USD3.91 Billio...
•In the long run, Government has madewheat production one of her priority cropsin its Agricultural Transformation Agenda(A...
CONCLUSION• There is great potential for irrigated and  rain-fed wheat production in Nigeria, but  particularly for the fo...
THANK YOU            MAGAJI ET AL., 2012   29
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Current status of wheat research and production in Nigeria - implications for food security

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Presentation by prof. M.D. Magaji (ARCN, Nigeria) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 8, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Current status of wheat research and production in Nigeria - implications for food security

  1. 1. CURRENT STATUS OF WHEAT RESEACH ANDPRODUCTION IN NIGERIA – IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SECURITY BY M. D. MAGAJI, B. Y. ABUBAKAR AND O.G. OLABANJI
  2. 2. IntroductionIn Nigeria, wheat cultivation dates back to the16th century, when wheat was cultivated onsmall plots and pockets of inland valley soils(fadama), using local cultivars that were tall(1.2m), late maturing (150 DAS) and lowyielding (300 – 600 kg/ha).Wheat is presently produced commercially inNigeria under irrigation conditions withinlatitudes 10o – 14oN where night temperaturesduring most of the growing period (November –March) range from 15oC to 20oC MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONThe mean maximum temperatureranges from 30o to 35oC during thegrowing period of November toMarch each year.The wheat areas cover mainlySudan/Sahelian zones of Borno,Yobe, Bauchi, Jigawa, Kano,Zamfara, Katsina , Sokoto, Kebbiand Adamawa States MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 3
  4. 4. POLITICAL MAP OF NIGERIA MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 4
  5. 5. ectectsTo increase wheat Production, there is the need to expand areas under production and increase the yield of varieties through breeding and managementOther potential avenue for increasing the area under wheat production is production under rain-fed conditions on the highland areas of the Country: Mambila-Plateau in Taraba, Jos- Plateau in Plateau and Obudu in Cross Rivers States, respectively.• Rain-fed wheat on the highlands of Nigeria could increase the much desired output as well as reduce production cost to a greater extent and shorten the breeding cycle for developing irrigated wheat varieties as two or more crops can be grown annually under irrigated and A G A J I Efed. , 2 0 1 2 M rain T A L 5 conditions.
  6. 6. In sDespite of the bright prospects and enormous potential of wheat production in Nigeria, there are challenges such as, changes in agricultural policies by different regimes, poor marketing channels and inadequate remuneration to farmers for their produce.The first major government intervention in Nigeria’s agricultural development was in 1959 when irrigation schemes were developed in the Northern parts of the country, which attracted appreciable number of farmers to start to grow wheat on any scale; and scientists to develop improved wheat varieties that are short, early maturing, high yielding and of good bread-baking qualities to cope with increasing local demand. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 6
  7. 7. Between 1971 and 1981, agricultural import bills, including those of wheat increased 13-fold from US $192 million to US $450 million.Decline in wheat importation began in 1987 when Government launched Accelerated Wheat Production Programme (AWPP) in order to stimulate local production and encourage backward integration, which gradually led to outright ban on importation of wheat into the Country.With the lifting of the ban on importation of wheat in 1993, the production figures declined to 50,000 tones from a total area of 40,000 hectares. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 7
  8. 8. Economic Importance of Wheat Wheat in Nigeria is mainly used for bakery and confectionery; it is also used for domestic pastries and local dishes. Wheat meals are recently gaining popularity in our restaurants. Recently, Nigerian grown wheat is being imported by its neighboring countries of Cameroun and Chad as cash crop. Since the ban on wheat importation in 1987, production figures and area planted with wheat increased considerably. During this period, wheat production increased from 400, 000 to 600, 000 tones of from 215, 000 hectares. The estimated local demand for wheat stands at about 3.7 million metric tones annually, while its current annual production ranges from 50, 000 – 60, 000 metric tones. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 8
  9. 9. RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT• Some of the challenges confronting wheat production in Nigeria are :• Development of heat tolerant wheat varieties that are high yielding• Development of rain-fed wheat cultivars that are tolerant/resistant to high temperatures, humidity, pests and diseases• The promotion of wheat as a staple food MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 9 and market outlets for surplus produce.
  10. 10. Wheat research dates back to 1959, when local germplasm materials were collected by scientists . These materials were evaluated and some promising lines identified. Introductions from CIMMYT were found to be more promising than the local cultivars as they matured early, were short in stature and yielded higher (Table 1). MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 10
  11. 11. TABLE1: WHEAT VARIETIES RELEASED AND REGISTERED IN NIGERIAName of Variety Original Name Origin/Sourc Developing Outstanding Year of e Institution Characteristics ReleaseSAM-WHIT-1 TOUSSON CIMMYT, I.A.R., Zaria Wide adaptability & High 1965 Mexico yield.SAM-WHIT-2 Florence Aurore 8193 - Do - - Do - High yield and good bread 1965 making qualities.SAM-WHIT-3 Sonora-9.63 - Do - - Do - Good grain qualities and bread 1971 making qualities.SAM-WHIT-4 LEEX (GB-55) - Do - - Do - High yielding, good bread 1971 making qualitiesSAM-WHIT-5 Siette Cerros - Do - - Do - High yielding, general 1975 adaptability.SAMWHIT-6 PAVON - Do_ -Do- High yield anfd quality 1976LACRI-WHIT-1 SERI M82 - Do - LCRI, Maiduguri High yielding and good baking 1997 quality.LACRI-WHIT-2 CEttia - Do - - Do - Early maturing, heat tolerant, 2005 high yielding and good baking quality.LACRI-WHIT-3 Linfen - Do - - Do - High yielding, golden yellow 2005 grainLACRI-WHIT-4 Atilla /Gan/ Atilla - Do - - Do - Medium maturity, heat 2008 tolerant, high yielding and good bread making quality A L . , 2 0 1 2 MAGAJI ET 11
  12. 12. Lake Chad Research Institute, incollaboration with CIMMYT hasdeveloped and released improvedwheat varieties that are earlymaturing, heat tolerant, highyielding and better bread bakingqualities (Table 2). MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 12
  13. 13. ACHIEVEMENTS AND CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL ECONOMYSerial Crop & Name Year of Yield potential Adoption rateNo release (t/ha) (%) Wheat1 LACRIWHT-1 (Seri-M82) 1997 3.0 452 LACRIWHT-2 (Cettia) 2005 4.0 403 LACRIWHT-3 Linfen) 2005 4.0 354 LACRIWHT-4 (Atilla-Gan- 2008 4.5 50 Attila)5 Rainfed Wheat (YD’S’) Proposed 2012 2.5 MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 13
  14. 14. COLLABORATORS• CIMMYT: Wheat Germplasm exchange• ICARDA : Barley Germplasm exchange• ICRISAT: Pearl Millet Germplasm Exchange and Capacity Building• NARIs: IAR, NSPRI, IAR&T: Conduct and supervise multi-locational research projects.• ADPs/CBARDP: Extension services delivery• Universities: Conduct and supervise multi-locational research• NACGRAB: Registration and release of new varieties. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 14
  15. 15. CETTIA SERI M82SERI M 82 CETTIA ATILLA GAN ATILLA MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 15
  16. 16. WHEAT PRODUCTION TREND PeriodsPeriods Areas cultivated Yield Areas cultivated Yield Total production Total production Consumption Consumption (ha) (ha) (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (MT) (MT) (MT) (MT) EarlyEarly Small plots ofof Small plots 300-600 300-600 2000BC Fadama2000BC Fadama< < 1987 25,000 1987 25,000 2000 2000 50,000 50,000 1988-92 215,0001988-92 215,000 2700 2700 400,000-600,000 400,000-600,000 20052005 70,000 70,000 1250 1250 85,000 85,000 20062006 63,000 63,000 1130 1130 71,000 71,000 20072007 40,000 40,000 1250 1250 50,000 50,000 3.7 million 3.7 million Source FAO 2006 & USDA 2007 MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 16
  17. 17. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 17
  18. 18. AVAILABLE TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Serial Crop & Name Crop & Name Yield Yield potential (t/ha) No potential (t/ha) WheatWheat1 1 LACRIWHT-4 (Atilla-Gan-Attila) 4.5 LACRIWHT-4 2 Borlogue 5 4.5 Pearl millet (Atilla-Gan-Attila) 3 LCICMV-3 (SUPERSOSAT) 4.02 Norman 4 LCICMH-1 (Hybrid) 4.5 4.0 Sorghum 5 Hybrid 3.8 MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 18
  19. 19. TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESManagement practices that ensures efficient use of water for irrigationMeasures that mitigate the effects of heat stressEvaluation of more heat tolerant germplasm MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 19
  20. 20. INPUTS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGETSLand : Expand existing hectarageAdequate supply of improved quality seedsProvision of sufficient and quality inorganic andorganic fertilizersRapid expansion of irrigation facilities andresuscitating of existing ones for irrigated cropsProvision of marketing corporations to supportvalue chains MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 20
  21. 21. SEED PRODUCTIONLake Chad Research Institute produces highquality breeder and foundation seeds for seedcompanies, state agricultural developmentprojects (ADPs) and lead farmers, whoproduce certified seeds for farmers.In 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons, about 3and 7.5 metric tones of breeder andfoundation seeds of wheat were produced,respectively. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 21
  22. 22. EXTENSION SERVICE DELIVERY• Research-Extension-Farmer- Inputs-Linkage-System (REFILS) provides a platform for linkages among researchers, extension workers, farmers and service providers;• Agricultural Research Outreach Centres (AROC) is an adopted village concept that aims at strengthening linkages between researchers and their immediate MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 22
  23. 23. The Institute also disseminates itsdeveloped technologies throughannual training, annual researchreview and planning meetings.,radio and television broadcasts,publication of extension guides,and bulletins for farmers,developers and NGOs. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 23
  24. 24. CHALLENGES• In spite of the prospects and enormous potentials for wheat production in Nigeria, challenges militating against increased local production for food security are as follows:• Weak research-extension-farmer linkage system (REFILS) to improve farmers technologies in the agronomy of wheat production.• Inadequate skill on the use of biotechnological tools for development of improved wheat varieties tolerant to heat, biotic and abiotic stresses.• Inadequate high yielding heat tolerant varieties• Inadequate water and inputs management• Weak training programme for extension A G A J I E T A and1 2 M agents L . , 2 0 24 farmer which results in application of low level of the
  25. 25. • Inadequate supply of good quality seeds. Poor market arrangement and remuneration to farmers in Nigeria.• Policy impediments that undermine adoption of new technologies.• Lack of micro credit facilities to the farmers frustrates timely field operations and procurement of necessary inputs.• Inadequate farm equipments notably tractor and combine harvester. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 25
  26. 26. Policy Issues•Nigeria requires 3.7 million metric tons of wheatannually and spends about 635 billion Naira (USD3.91 Billion ) annually, amounting to about 1.7 billionNaira daily to import the commodity. Yet, currentlocal production stands at a meager 50, 000 - 60,000 metric tones. Consequently, Nigeria is theworld’s largest importer of all classes of U.S. wheat.•In the short run, Government has put legislation inplace to replace 20% of wheat flour by good qualitycassava flour for bread-baking, thus saving thecountry’s foreign exchange by N127 billion annually,hoping to increase the percentage substitution to40%, saving up to N354 Billion/annum. MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 26
  27. 27. •In the long run, Government has madewheat production one of her priority cropsin its Agricultural Transformation Agenda(ATA). Effective from 2013, Governmentintended to support wheat production andits value-chain. Imposition of tariff on wheat importationby 5% (about N32 Billion),•As part of the Government’s efforts, theResearch – Extension – Farmer – Input-Linkage - System (REFILS) shall bestrengthened to improve farmers’ MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 27
  28. 28. CONCLUSION• There is great potential for irrigated and rain-fed wheat production in Nigeria, but particularly for the former.• A large number of wheat lines obtained from CIMMYT is being evaluated to identify adaptable materials.• Studies on enhancement of wheat production through improved technology development and impacts of innovations on livelihood is currently under way.• This will not only increase the total wheat output in the country but will enhance national food and nutritional security and MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 28 generate employment.
  29. 29. THANK YOU MAGAJI ET AL., 2012 29

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