Regional perspective – production, constraints, market, future: Synthesis of Eastern Africa Alemayehu Assefa (EIAR, Ethiopia) & Bekele Geleta (CIMMYT-Ethiopia)
Introduction East African Environment Importance of wheat in East Africa Wheat area and Production Import and Export of Wheat in ECA Wheat Production Constraints Regional Research Priorities
Environment of East African Countries♣ Because of the rain shadow of the westerly monsoon winds created by Rwenzori mountains and the Ethiopian highlands ● East Africa is surprisingly cool and dry for its latitude. ● The low lying lands of Northern Kenya, South & South East Ethiopia are extremely dry ● Rainfall being around 400mm at Mogadishu and 1200 mm at Mombasa on the coast♣ While for the inland, it increases from around 130 mm to over 1 100 mm near Kilimanjaro and most Ethiopian highlands ● Most of the rain falls in two distinct wet seasons (one centered around April and the other October to November. ● But in Ethiopia June to September also
Importance of wheat in East Africa (ECA) Wheat is increasingly becoming a valued grain in terms of consumption in ECA due to rising population and incomes increased urbanization and its associated dietary patterns.
Importance of wheat (cont.) A major crop in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya and Tanzania In Kenya, 2nd most important cereal; planted on 0.13 M ha with annual production of >220,000T. In Ethiopia, 4th most important cereal; planted on 1.46 M ha with annual production of 3.1 to 3.4 M t, mostly by small- holders.
Wheat Area and Production in East Africa Area (mill Yield ha) (t/ha) Production (million t) Country 2008 2008 2009 2010 2011 E. Africa 1.74 1.7 4.2 3.8 4.2 ETH 1.42 1.7 3.4 3.1 3.4 KEN 0.13 2.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 TAN 0.09 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 UGA 0.01 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 FAOSTAT 2008; FAO Crop prospects & Food Situation. No. 1, 2012
Wheat production (1961-2008) in East Africa (D.Collin, EastAfrican Yield Study)
Fertilizer Use Per hectare in East African Countries
Import/Export (Market) the ECA region is a net importer of wheat. Eg: Tanzania wheat imports The exports of wheat are very little. averaged 643,000 T per The imports have been increasing since 1986 from 675,000 t to over 3 annum between 2005 and million t in 2002 increasing domestic demand of 2007; wheat in ECA countries In 1950s, Ethiopia was a The total import requirement reached 3, 766,200 ton in 2011 net exporter of wheat; but in (Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda & TZ) 2011: 1,049,000 t import
Wheat Production Constraints in ECA:1. Technological & Natural factors Diseases, weeds, insects (RWA) The appearance of a new race, Ug99, in East Africa is a serious concern for wheat producing nations Eg: In Kenya, yield losses up to 71% (equivalent to 210,000 t) to Ug99 in experiments.Grain quality Lack of varieties for specific growing conditions (drought, heat, irrigation, acid soils) Poor Good Crop Management Lack of seeds
2. Socio-Economic & Institutional factors:● Lack of adoption of technologies as a package● Inadequate access to production resources● Inadequate participation of local communities● Poor physical infrastructure and utilities● Week institutional framework● Unfavorable terms of trade● The whole spectrum in the wheat value chain not often considered (eg Durum wheat in Ethiopia)
The Priorities for wheat in ECA1: Improved productivityDevelopment and dissemination of efficient soil and water management strategies.Development and dissemination of integrated crop management options.Development and dissemination of appropriate varieties.Promotion, access and use of inputs.
The Priorities (Cont’d)2: Improved markets and trade opportunities Promote demand driven products of wheat. Establishing and supporting market and trade information mechanisms.3: Strengthening institutional support and infrastructure Establishment and strengthening partnerships. Strengthening human and institutional capacity.
The Priorities (Cont’d)4: Development and promotion of appropriate post harvest technologies and utilization options Processing technologies. Appropriate technologies to reduce post harvest losses. Development and promotion of value addition in wheat.
The Priorities (Cont’d)5. Influencing policy issues Establishing favourable marketing policies and suitable infrastructure. Identifying and promoting favourable policies. (eg. Design mechanism for domestic food processing factories to use local wheat produces)
R4D Strategy: The problems, potentials and opportunities seen so far reflect the need for a collective effort between institutions, countries through regional platforms for: ● Technology generation ● Adoption and extension ● Knowledge management Sub-regional integration can boost longer-term growth and can deliver benefits to food security in short run
R4D Strategy (cont.) Hence, East African Agricultural Productivity Program (EAAPP) aimed at ● Sharing technologies, knowledge and information ● To strengthen enabling environment for regional seed trade and improve the capacity of seed producers and traders ● Increasing market based supply of seeds to farmers ● Harmonization of policies & seed services to strengthen regional wheat seed and markets: While keeping strong collaboration with CG Centers (CIMMYT, ICARDA & others)
The Role of Research to Increased Wheat Production Trends of wheat production & productivity in response to varietal development in Ethiopia (1961- 2007): Source: FAOSTAT
Future: Regional Integration Regional integration under the auspices of the African Union (AU), the United Nations Commission for Africa (UN-ECA), Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA), Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and the re-establishment of the East African Community (EAC) are opening opportunities for enlarging the market through elimination of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers. Further, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), can assist African producers to avoid inadvertently undermining each other in the international market place and Collaboratively carve out a significant market share for selected products in which the region can be competitive (NEPAD, 2003).