Nutritional Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasm in Kenya
Nutritional Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasm in Kenya J.N. Ndung’u*1, E.N. Kimani, and P.N. Njau National Plant Breeding Research Centre- KARI- Njoro, Private Bag - 20107, Njoro - KENYA
Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown food crop in the world. In Kenya, it is ranked second after maize in cereal crops research priorities. Mineral elements are essential components of wheat metabolism and often accumulate in grain. Humans require at least 22 of these mineral elements for: Well being which can be supplied by appropriate diet like wheat
.....introductionIt is estimated that over 60 percent of theworld’s 7 billion people are: Iron deficient and over 30 percent are zinc deficient. In addition, protein, calcium andmagnesium deficiencies are common in : developed and developing countries including Kenya.Resistant starch (RS) is known to havehealthy benefits for human Should be encouraged to form part of daily diet
Micronutrient malnutrition (Hidden hunger) Source: World Health Organization
Solution Challenge1 Micronutrient supplements for children (Fe&zinc) Malnutrition2 The Doha development agenda Trade3 Micronutrient fortification (iron and salt Malnutrition iodization)4 Expanded immunization coverage for children Diseases5 Biofortification Malnutrition6 Deworming, other nutrition programs in school Malnutrition7 Lowering the price of schooling Education8 Increase and improve girl’s schooling Women9 Community-based nutrition promotion Malnutrition10 Provide support for women’s reproductive role WomenReference: http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com
Main Objective To Analyze the Contribution of Kenya Wheat Cultivars to the Improved Nutrition.
Materials and methods Twenty one wheat accessions (Commercial varieties, advanced stem rust lines and one mutant line) used in this study (Table) Accessions planted at Njoro site: (Table /Map) Experiment design: 4x4 partially balanced lattice design, replicated three times. Recommended practices followed to sustain plant growth and production of grain. Samples in lab milled using Retsch mill
……..Materials and Methods Mineral analysis determined using AAS following the method of Okalebo (2002). (Figure 2) Crude protein analysis was determined using NIR method. Resistant starch assay was determined following Megazyme procedure RSTAR 11/02 AOAC Method 2002.02, AACC Method 32-40 Data subjected to ANOVA using GLM (SAS : 9.1.3) Differences between means ranked by Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test
…..Materials and Methods Correlation coefficients determined to establish the relationship between the accessions. Similarity levels obtained using MINITAB statistical analysis software (1996).
Results and Discussion The analysis of variance showed genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01) different in mean values for minerals, RS and protein For the mineral contents, a linear regression equation y = 0.00238x with R2 = 0.9991 was observed eg zinc Calibration curve for mineral analysis (Fe, Zn, Mg and Ca) 0.2500 y = 0.0238x R2 = 0.9991 0.2000 Absorbance 0.1500 0.1000 0.0500 0.0000 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Concentration (ppm)
…….Results and Discussion Sig. difference (p≤0.01) among accessions. Iron Concentration(ppm) 600 Mbega and Popo highestConcentration (ppm) 500 level of 546.2 ppm and 533.5 400 300 Iron ppm respectively. 200 100 KM 14, KSSR III, KSSR IV, 0 Kulungu, Kongoni and KS g u KS ri ia I i III u a 14 e IV on R m ha rik al am R n KM R R ng Kw Chozi scoring lowest at104.5 Du Fa lu Ch R KS R Ng Ko Ku ppm, 95.6 ppm, 94.1 ppm, Varieties 90.2 ppm, 82.8 ppm and 81.4 ppm respectively. All above RDA (20-50 ppm)
……Results and Discussion Sig. difference (p≤0.01) Zinc Concentration among accessions. Nyangumi scoredConcentration (ppm) 250 200 150 100 Zinc highest at 218.2 ppm 50 0 Seven varieties had u KS ri ia conc. lower than 100 I i III u a 14 e IV on R m ha rik ng al am R KM R R ng Kw Du Fa lu Ch R KS R Ng Ko Ku KS Accessions ppm and they include KM 14, Njoro BW II, Chiriku, KSSR I, Paka, Fahari and KSSR IV All above RDA 50 ppm
……Results and Discussion Differences in iron and zinc conc. among varieties is attributed to: Allelic variation at a chromosomal locus that promotes early senescence and remobilization of protein, iron and zinc from senescing leaves to seeds. Despite planting at same E, Iron and zinc contents are significantly influenced by: Date of planting, genotype and environment Late planting and irrigation can significantly increase the iron and zinc contents. Seeding rates or nitrogen fertilization do not significantly affect levels of iron and zinc in wheat grain
……Results and Discussion Magnesium Concentration Sig. difference (p≤0.01) among genotypes.Concentration (ppm) 2500 2000 Popo variety scored 1500 highest at 1988.3 ppm 1000 500 Magnesium but not significantly (p 0 ≥0.01) differenr to Chozi at 1927.7 ppm Fa wII KS R R i Te ng u He ia M o ni Nj R I Ch III K. am i R bo KMg a lu n i Ny Kw o Po u Ch ozi M ma 14 Du oe R II an ale KS ka Pa IV r Ng um KS ha rik p Ku bu R r KS m be B R R ng g Ko Chiriku recorded a low Accessions of 350.9 ppm. All above RDA 350 ppm
……Results and Discussion Calcium Concentration (ppm) Sig. difference (p≤0.01)Concentration (ppm) 700 among accessions. 600 500 400 Variety Kwale scored 300 highest at 602.2 ppm 200 Calcium 100 Chiriku variety having 0 lowest concentration of KS h I KS m u KS R Ra ri Hemia B I Ku bu i Ch III K. a i R bo KMg a Ny K po Te ng i Poiku r i be a 14 D roe R II le R a Pa IV M on Fa wI Ch oz Ngg um lu n Nj R M um 143.8 ppm KS k an wa R R ng Ko Accessions All low RDA 1000 ppm
……Results and Discussion GxE effects influence wheat grain magnesium and calcium contents Increasing conc of essential mineral elements in wheat grain can be also done by: Application of mineral fertilizers Breeding wheat varieties with increased ability to acquire and accumulate these minerals in grain through e.g induced mutation
……Results and Discussion Resistant Starch Concentration (g/100g) Sig. difference (p≤0.01) among genotypes.Concentration (g/100g) 0.12 0.1 0.08 KSSR II had highest 0.06 conc. of 0.1 g/100g 0.04 0.02 followed closely by 0 Resistant Starch Njoro BW II with a KS ahwII R mb u R R Ii a FB I Ku b i Ch o I Hemi i R o KMg a an wa o Teung i Poiku r zi be a 14 Duroe Ch III Ngg u le NjR Ra KS a IV KS R a r M go n value of 0.04 g/100g. K. a m l un M m Ny K p k R P n Ko KS Accessions Paka variety had lowest conc. of 0.001 g/100g.
……Results and Discussion Wheat varieties e.g KSSR II high in RS can be: Associated with improved gut health through raising Short Chain Fatty acids e.g Butyrate Reduction of colon cancer low supply of these acids is associated with increased risk of non-infectious diseases. Good RS contributes to bowel good health by: Encouraging the growth of healthy bacteria in the bowel Discourages the growth of potentially harmful bacteria
……Results and Discussion Sig. difference (p≤0.01) among genotypes. KSSR II and Popo at 18.1 percent and 17.8 percent Protein Concentration (% ) Chiriku recorded the lowest Concentration (%) 20 percent at 12.2 although: 15 It was still above 11 percent 10 Protein 5 that is described as desirable by 0 millers and bakers. KS ah II KS emg u KS R Ra ri Hemia B I Ku bu i Ch III K . a mi R bo KMg a Ny K po T n i Poiku r i be a 14 D roe R II Ngg u le R a Pa IV M on Ch oz lu n F w Nj R M um KS k an wa R R Higher the protein level, higher ng Ko the nutrition and premium paid by Accessions millers Used in improvement of weak soft wheat with low protein
……Results and Discussion The positive correlation indicates: Nutritional quality traits are linked and is possible to enhance one trait while increasing on the other The positive correlations observed in this study have also been reported in other related studies in the world Positive protein and minerals relationships are possibly due to: enzyme cofactor requirements during protein formation since micronutrients acts as metallic activators.
……Results and Discussion Dendogram showing similarity coefficients of At a 80 % similarity combined quality traits at Njoro site coefficient: 4 cluster groupsSimilarity 73.64 delineated composed of 4 82.43 wheat groupings of 91.21 wheat in Kenya. Groups I, II, III and 100.00 1 2 6 3 10 5 9 7 4 21 8 17 15 11 18 19 16 14 20 12 13 IV Have different end Observations use
Conclusion and Recommendations Great variation in different wheat nutritional parameters attributed to the different cultivars Observed values for protein and mineral contents suggest the potential for improving the nutritive health of the population. This can contribute greatly to sustaining national development efforts. Healthy population always leads to a prosperous Nation Some cultivars can be used as parents for nutritional breeding
Njoro – Site Kenya Njoro e - 2- 3 – 5- - 1-, 0- - 1-3 4- Environmental descriptors of Njoro siteTrial site Alt. Soil type Annual Mean maximum Mean minimum masl Rainfal (mm) Temperature (0C) Temperature (0C)Njoro (NPBRC) 2300 Fluvisols 1200 28 16.8 (Return
Figure: Analysis of wheat accessions for minerals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(Shimadzu Model AA- 6300, Tokyo-Japan). (Return)
Table : Twenty one accessions of wheat (Return) Variety Variety Variety Kongoni Chozi Kwale Mbuni Chiriku Nyangumi Kulungu Ngamia KSRR I Tembo K. Heroe KSRR II Njoro BwII Duma KSRR III Paka Mbega KSRR IV Fahari Popo KM 14