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Modelling research output expressions : metadata schema modelling of publication lifecycles and scholarly entities / George Macgregor (University of Glasgow).

CILIP MDG
CILIP MDG

Originally an OAI-PMH metadata application profile for open repositories in the UK, Rioxx version 2.0 has been widely adopted by repositories in the UK since 2016. Such support has enabled superior discovery potential for repository content owing to Rioxx’s evidenced harvesting and aggregation benefits. Emerging from a version 3.0 candidate release, Rioxx: The Research Output Metadata Schema has recently been finalized. Version 3.0 adopts a less UK centric approach to the schema and has introduced significant changes to the way in which research outputs are modelled and described. This includes superior capture of graph relations between other scholarly entities, harnessing greater use of persistent identifiers (PIDs), and reusing semantics from prominent vocabularies while retaining OAI-PMH as the principal data harvesting mechanism. Most notably, the schema borrows aspects of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) conceptual entity–relationship model to understand relationships between scholarly entities, particularly group 1 entities pertaining to works and expressions. This, combined with better encoding of these relational associations within metadata, means Rioxx can make a useful contribution to the evolution of open scholarly graphs, including the burgeoning ‘PID graph’. This paper explores the modelling of research output expressions within repository metadata schema. Starting with consideration of the Scholarly Works Application Profile (SWAP) and using the recently finalized Rioxx v3.0 schema as case studies, we consider the need for, and the importance of, superior modelling of scholarly works, particularly within open repositories, and consider some of the social-technical impediments to delivering schema which are more adaptable, work agnostic, and PID-centric. We demonstrate how such repository metadata can greatly enrich the formal PID graph thereby potentially unlocking new areas of scientific study; but also enhance user discovery of related research entities, most notably of research publication expressions, datasets, software, projects, and grants. The paper will also explore areas where FRBR thinking needs reactivating within repository contexts. Despite its general acceptance elsewhere, even with its limitations understood, experience within open repositories suggests that a commensurate conceptual shift remains elusive in repository metadata thinking and practice. Paper presented at the CILIP Metadata and Discovery Group (MDG) Conference & UKCoR RDA Day (6th - 8th Sept 2023 at IET Austin Court, Birmingham).

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Modelling research output expressions : metadata
schema modelling of publication lifecycles &
scholarly entities
George Macgregor
University of Glasgow
2023-09-06
https://purl.org/g3om4c
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8482-3973
Slides available: https://doi.org/10.17868/strath.00085166
ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
Overview
1. Briefly explore the metadata application profile landscape of open scholarly
repositories
2. Prior attempts to model expressions, relations, etc. of scholarly works
3. Growth of the persistent identifier graph (PID graph)
4. How the Rioxx: Research Output Metadata Schema (v3.0) is responding to a PID-
centric and relational data reality
◦ Brief exploration of Rioxx itself
5. Community reflection that the Rioxx experience, and reality, is prompting
ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
Repository metadata context
• OOTB, repositories remain very good at making (scholarly) content discoverable
• OAI-PMH still a principal machine interface to repository content, despite
alternatives (e.g. ResourceSync)
• History - my favourite subject - and the folly of 'simple' Dublin Core...
• Metadata profiles central to improved interoperability and semantics
• Harvesting, aggregation, discovery and... compliance
ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
Profile examples...
Prominent repository metadata applications profiles include:
• OpenAIRE (literature repositories)
• OpenAIRE (data archives)
• OpenAIRE (software)
• UKETD 2017 (EThOS)
• Scholarly Works Applications Profile (SWAP) - dead but not forgotten!
• Rioxx v2.0, more on this too!
ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
In 2013
The good old days...
...when publication lifecycles and scholarly entities were (relatively) simple...
ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023

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Modelling research output expressions : metadata schema modelling of publication lifecycles and scholarly entities / George Macgregor (University of Glasgow).

  • 1. Modelling research output expressions : metadata schema modelling of publication lifecycles & scholarly entities George Macgregor University of Glasgow 2023-09-06 https://purl.org/g3om4c https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8482-3973 Slides available: https://doi.org/10.17868/strath.00085166 ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 2. Overview 1. Briefly explore the metadata application profile landscape of open scholarly repositories 2. Prior attempts to model expressions, relations, etc. of scholarly works 3. Growth of the persistent identifier graph (PID graph) 4. How the Rioxx: Research Output Metadata Schema (v3.0) is responding to a PID- centric and relational data reality ◦ Brief exploration of Rioxx itself 5. Community reflection that the Rioxx experience, and reality, is prompting ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 3. Repository metadata context • OOTB, repositories remain very good at making (scholarly) content discoverable • OAI-PMH still a principal machine interface to repository content, despite alternatives (e.g. ResourceSync) • History - my favourite subject - and the folly of 'simple' Dublin Core... • Metadata profiles central to improved interoperability and semantics • Harvesting, aggregation, discovery and... compliance ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 4. Profile examples... Prominent repository metadata applications profiles include: • OpenAIRE (literature repositories) • OpenAIRE (data archives) • OpenAIRE (software) • UKETD 2017 (EThOS) • Scholarly Works Applications Profile (SWAP) - dead but not forgotten! • Rioxx v2.0, more on this too! ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 5. In 2013 The good old days... ...when publication lifecycles and scholarly entities were (relatively) simple... ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 6. ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 7. SWAP circa 2008 SWAP: Scholarly Works Application Profile [1] • Clear motivation; supported by Jisc • Recognized importance of relations between entities, esp. funding • Used FRBR! Yay! But never adopted by repositories • Ahead of its time in 2008...? • Difficult to implement within repository software • Too esoteric for those working with scholarly digital content [2] • Useful conceptual exercise but did not address machine discovery satisfactorily ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 8. 2023 The future envisaged by SWAP is now the present, sort of... ...but this future is actually more complex... ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 9. ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 10. Trends in scholarly publication inescapable... 1. Need to respond to complexity while ensuring discovery advantages i. Provenance & contextualization 2. Enshrined in open research requirements of funders (Plan S, UKRI, G7) 3. Reproducibility, verification, replication -- scholarly record & the "reproducibility crisis" i. Growth of rights retention strategy (RRS), FAIR data, data management planning (DMPs) 4. Supporting the burgeoning 'PID graph' 5. Scholarly works as (unofficial) multi-part or multi-object outputs ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 11. TIB – Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology - PID Service (CC-BY) ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 12. Exploring the graph with Neo4j... ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 13. Rioxx Rioxx: Research Output Metadata Schema • Version 2.0 widely adopted since 2016; Dublin Core with extensions • Discovery improvements, esp. in harvesting and aggregation [2] -- file location links critical [3] ◦ Repositories default support of Dublin Core spectacularly ineffective for OAI- PMH harvesting of digital content ◦ Full-text harvesting request average for single resource using Dublin Core: ◦ Digital Commons (13K!!), DSpace (1.5K!) [3] ◦ EPrints = 8. Better but 7 too many! [3] ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 14. Rioxx v3.0 Version 3.0 • Improves modelling of scholarly entities & relations ◦ Borrows conceptual thinking from FRBR (as per Library Reference Model) (but not SWAP!) • Capitalizes on discovery potential • Better supports productive contribution to PID graph • 'PID-ification '-- greater URI referencing & semantics • Alignment with Signposting and ResourceSync • Retains some semblance of 'traditional' notions of publication :thinking: ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 15. v3.0: Vocabularies, semantics, & PID types (Beyond structure) language independent semantics conveyed by SKOS: • COAR Resource Type Vocabulary • COAR Access Rights Vocabulary • COAR Version Type Vocabulary Resource Type Label: 'observational data (English)', 'gözlemsel veri (Türkçe)', etc. http://purl.org/coar/resource_type/FF4C-28RK Broader concept: 'dataset' http://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_ddb1 ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 16. ... Referral to entities by URIs widely supported but anticipated PID types include: • Creators/Contributors: ORCID, ISNI, VIAF, WikiData • Organizations: ISNI, VIAF, WikiData - ROR, FundRef • Research activity: RAiD Optimum use of PIDs for reference and relational associations between related works and expressions to enrich PID graph and support discovery / contextualization • (Can create issues with 'authority of assertion' - see tomorrow!) ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 19. ... Introduction of rioxxterms:relation : <!--Relation to VoR--> <rioxxterms:relation coar_type="https://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_6501" coar_version="https://purl.org/coar/version/c_970fb48d4fbd8a85"> https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2023.3262412 </rioxxterms:relation> <!--...to research dataset(s) - simulation data--> <rioxxterms:relation coar_type="http://purl.org/coar/resource_type/W2XT-701"> https://doi.org/10.15778/RESIF.MT </rioxxterms:relation> <!--...to research data(s) - observational data--> <rioxxterms:relation coar_type="http://purl.org/coar/resource_type/FF4C-28RK"> https://doi.org/10.5880/fidgeo.2021.032 </rioxxterms:relation> ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 20. Some fuller but simple examples... Example 1, example 2, example 3 ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 21. ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 22. But, questions for the community? Are 'traditional' notions of publication holding back the community when it comes to resource description in a more URI-centric and relationally dependent resource environment? Possibly... ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 23. Attachment to outdated notions of publication? Attachment to seeing things through the prism of the 'published version' (Version of Record - VoR) • Distorts purer / richer metadata modelling of publication lifecyles and scholarly entities ◦ Including Rioxx v 3.0 • Prism reinforces the primacy of publishers and dysfunction in scholarly publishing • Reality is increasingly fluid and relational ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 24. Lack of technical understanding of URIs, PIDs, and relational linking? The revenge of Linked Data and the Semantic Web...? • Improved understanding of web technology necessary • URIs, PIDs, relational linking and the role of distributed metadata • Working for the benefit of machines as well as humans ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 25. Rioxx v 3.0 • Version 3.0, 2nd draft available • Long road -- changes always to implement! • Advocate for adoption - technical but also socio-technical • JSON-LD serialization of Rioxx forthcoming ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 26. Thanks for listening! Questions?! Acknowledgement of work by Rioxx Governance Group: Nicola Dowson, Mick Eadie, Petr Knoth, Bev Jones, George Macgregor & Paul Walk ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023
  • 27. References [1] J. Allinson, ‘Describing Scholarly Works with Dublin Core: A Functional Approach’, Library Trends, 57 (2), pp. 221–243, 2008. Accessed Jul. 18, 2023. [2] E. O’Neill and M. Žumer, ‘FRBR: Application of the Model to Textual Documents’, Libr. Resources Tech. Serv., 62 (4), Art. no. 4, Oct. 2018. Available: https: //doi.org/10.5860/lrts.62n4.176 [2] P. Knoth and B. Notay, 'UKRI OA policy requirements for repositories and how to meet them', presented at the Jisc Workshop, 2021. Accessed: Jul. 18, 2023. [3] P. Knoth, M. Cancellieri, M. Klein, 'Comparing the performance of OAI-PMH with ResourceSync', The 14th International Conference on Open Repositories (OR2019) June 2019. Universität Hamburg, Hamburg. Accessed: Jul. 18, 2023. ReDiscovery - MDG Conference 2023