SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Women's participation in communal forests: experience from Nicaragua's indigenous territories

In this CIFOR-hosted session of the 2014 IUFRO World Congress, experts examined the implications of forest and land tenure reforms in Nicaragua and elsewhere (in Asia, Africa and Latin America) with emphasis on local institutions, governance, livelihoods, and gender dynamics.

1 of 17
Download to read offline
Women’s Participation in Communal 
Forests: Experience from Nicaragua’s 
Kristen Evans*, Selmira Flores# and Anne Larson* 
October 9, 2014 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
IUFRO 
*CIFOR, #Nitlapan-UCA 
Indigenous Territories
Background: Why this research? 
 Little research exists on indigenous women’s participation in 
forest use and management in communal lands in Latin 
America. 
 In Nicaragua, women theoretically (by law) have equal 
rights to forest resources and decision making. 
 However, empirical evidence points to important inequalities 
in access and rights. 
 Who will decide the future of communal forests?
Research questions 
 How are indigenous women “participating” in decision-making 
about forests and forest resources? 
 What are the constraints and opportunities to equitable 
participation by Miskitas and Mayangnas in decision-making? 
 What strategies can improve the participation of these 
groups of women?
Study site: Northern Caribbean 
Autonomous Region (RACN) 
 Majority indigenous: Miskitu (57%) 
and Mayangna (4%)1 
 Communal land tenure with new 
conflicts arising (saneamiento) 
 43% forest cover2 
 Subsistence livelihoods 
complemented with periodic cash 
sales of forest products and wage 
labor 
1 INIDE 2005 VIII Population Census, Managua, Nicaragua. 
2 INAFOR 2008. Inventario Forestal 2007-08. Instituto Nacional 
Forestal, Managua, Nicaragua.
Methods 
Methodology Results/Outcomes 
Household surveys 
300 surveys of men and women (50% 
each) about participation in use, sale and 
decision-making with regard to the 
forest. 
Quantify nature of participation in 
decision-making and provide baseline. 
How do women participate? 
Adaptive collaborative management 
Participatory action research methods to 
open up decision-making spaces to 
women at the community level. 
Strengthen participation through shared 
activities; identify constraints and 
strategies to broaden participation in 
public spaces. 
How can women’s participation at the 
community level be improved? 
Semi-structured interviews 
Interviews with community leaders and 
members (men and women) 
Identify the driving forces, attitudes and 
interactions in both the public and 
private sphere that limit or encourage 
participation. 
What are the obstacles to women’s 
participation at the community level?
Perceptions on participation (1) 
Women are involved in forest-related 
decision making at the following levels… 
% of respondent type who 
agreed 
Male Female 
Household* 
88.7 80.5 
As a member of a community group 
80.9 75.5 
In local council meetings 
78.7 73.6 
In meetings with other stakeholders eg. 
NGOs, researchers etc. 
76.6 62.9 
* Difference is significant 
Source: Survey of 300 households in 9 communities

Recommended

More Related Content

What's hot

Women's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from Indonesia
Women's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from IndonesiaWomen's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from Indonesia
Women's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from IndonesiaWorldFish
 
Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...
Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...
Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...CGIAR
 
Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...
Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...
Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...IIED
 
The Power of GreenSky
The Power of GreenSkyThe Power of GreenSky
The Power of GreenSkyGreenSky2
 
A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...
A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...
A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...WorldFish
 
Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...
Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...
Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...Premier Publishers
 
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperousOrganisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperousIIED
 
Mfo program northwest region extended overview
Mfo program northwest region extended overviewMfo program northwest region extended overview
Mfo program northwest region extended overviewflprism
 
Establishing Partnerships To Plant Community Groves
Establishing Partnerships To Plant Community GrovesEstablishing Partnerships To Plant Community Groves
Establishing Partnerships To Plant Community GrovesRails-To-Trails Conservancy
 
Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands
Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded landsGender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands
Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded landsWorld Agroforestry (ICRAF)
 
By Brother’s Keeper Community Challenge
By Brother’s Keeper Community ChallengeBy Brother’s Keeper Community Challenge
By Brother’s Keeper Community ChallengeJasmeenWellere
 
Gender and Water Governance
Gender and Water GovernanceGender and Water Governance
Gender and Water GovernanceHI-AWARE
 
Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...
Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...
Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...IAALD Community
 
West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...
West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...
West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Potential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts management
Potential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts managementPotential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts management
Potential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts managementCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Discussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologies
Discussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologiesDiscussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologies
Discussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologiesFAO
 

What's hot (20)

Women's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from Indonesia
Women's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from IndonesiaWomen's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from Indonesia
Women's empowerment in aquaculture: Two case studies from Indonesia
 
U&c forestry funding opportunities aug2012
U&c forestry funding opportunities aug2012U&c forestry funding opportunities aug2012
U&c forestry funding opportunities aug2012
 
Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...
Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...
Farms not arms: The role of women in conflict-vulnerable communities in the P...
 
Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...
Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...
Multifaceted approach to transition from emergency aid and rehabilitation to ...
 
The Power of GreenSky
The Power of GreenSkyThe Power of GreenSky
The Power of GreenSky
 
A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...
A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...
A gendered value chain analysis of post harvest losses in the Barotse floodpl...
 
Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...
Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...
Enhancing Social Capital During the Pandemic: A Case of the Rural Women in Bu...
 
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperousOrganisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
 
2015 team 3
2015 team 32015 team 3
2015 team 3
 
Nyakwara
NyakwaraNyakwara
Nyakwara
 
Mfo program northwest region extended overview
Mfo program northwest region extended overviewMfo program northwest region extended overview
Mfo program northwest region extended overview
 
Establishing Partnerships To Plant Community Groves
Establishing Partnerships To Plant Community GrovesEstablishing Partnerships To Plant Community Groves
Establishing Partnerships To Plant Community Groves
 
Gender and IWRM
Gender and IWRMGender and IWRM
Gender and IWRM
 
Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands
Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded landsGender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands
Gender matters in agroforestry in dry and degraded lands
 
By Brother’s Keeper Community Challenge
By Brother’s Keeper Community ChallengeBy Brother’s Keeper Community Challenge
By Brother’s Keeper Community Challenge
 
Gender and Water Governance
Gender and Water GovernanceGender and Water Governance
Gender and Water Governance
 
Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...
Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...
Information repackaging for the conservation of biodiversity on farmlands in ...
 
West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...
West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...
West Africa Forest-Farm Interface Project (WAFFI): Enhancing smallholder food...
 
Potential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts management
Potential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts managementPotential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts management
Potential and challenges for Multistakeholder Platforms in conflicts management
 
Discussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologies
Discussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologiesDiscussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologies
Discussion on Family Farming Criteria for definitions and typologies
 

Viewers also liked

Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...
Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...
Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Challenges To Women’s Access To Natural Resources
Challenges To Women’s Access To Natural ResourcesChallenges To Women’s Access To Natural Resources
Challenges To Women’s Access To Natural ResourcesGilbert Makore
 
Achieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance Sector
Achieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance SectorAchieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance Sector
Achieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance SectorAksi SETAPAK
 
Aranya permaculture women tribal
Aranya permaculture women tribalAranya permaculture women tribal
Aranya permaculture women tribalAbhilash Engala
 
Permaculture view venkat
Permaculture view venkatPermaculture view venkat
Permaculture view venkatAbhilash Engala
 
Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0
Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0
Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0guest190b7a
 
Entrepreneurial development of rural and tribal women
Entrepreneurial development of rural and tribal womenEntrepreneurial development of rural and tribal women
Entrepreneurial development of rural and tribal womenPflcw Secretariat
 
Women enterpreneur in india
Women enterpreneur in indiaWomen enterpreneur in india
Women enterpreneur in indiaRahul Jain
 
Women, men and the management of forests and landscapes
Women, men and the management of forests and landscapesWomen, men and the management of forests and landscapes
Women, men and the management of forests and landscapesCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Globalization and Tribal Women
Globalization and Tribal WomenGlobalization and Tribal Women
Globalization and Tribal WomenSugandha Parmar
 

Viewers also liked (10)

Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...
Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...
Supporting MRV-able mitigation measures - BMU's IKI Project Portfolio on Clim...
 
Challenges To Women’s Access To Natural Resources
Challenges To Women’s Access To Natural ResourcesChallenges To Women’s Access To Natural Resources
Challenges To Women’s Access To Natural Resources
 
Achieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance Sector
Achieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance SectorAchieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance Sector
Achieving Gender Justice in Indonesia's Forest and Land Governance Sector
 
Aranya permaculture women tribal
Aranya permaculture women tribalAranya permaculture women tribal
Aranya permaculture women tribal
 
Permaculture view venkat
Permaculture view venkatPermaculture view venkat
Permaculture view venkat
 
Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0
Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0
Meet The Most Influential Women in Web 2.0
 
Entrepreneurial development of rural and tribal women
Entrepreneurial development of rural and tribal womenEntrepreneurial development of rural and tribal women
Entrepreneurial development of rural and tribal women
 
Women enterpreneur in india
Women enterpreneur in indiaWomen enterpreneur in india
Women enterpreneur in india
 
Women, men and the management of forests and landscapes
Women, men and the management of forests and landscapesWomen, men and the management of forests and landscapes
Women, men and the management of forests and landscapes
 
Globalization and Tribal Women
Globalization and Tribal WomenGlobalization and Tribal Women
Globalization and Tribal Women
 

Similar to Women's participation in communal forests: experience from Nicaragua's indigenous territories

Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving ahead
Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving aheadGender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving ahead
Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving aheadCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...
Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...
Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management lo...
Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management  lo...Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management  lo...
Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management lo...World Agroforestry (ICRAF)
 
Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020
Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020
Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020M S Swaminathan Research Foundation
 
Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...
Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...
Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects
5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects
5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover ProjectsNancy Drost
 
People and forests trajectory
People and forests trajectoryPeople and forests trajectory
People and forests trajectoryCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...CGIAR
 
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...IFPRI-PIM
 
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...
Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...
Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure
26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure
26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenuremrlgregion
 
Lecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIAT
Lecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIATLecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIAT
Lecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIATCIAT
 
Gender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate changeGender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate changeCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Gender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate changeGender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate changeCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...
Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...
Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...Gender at Work .
 
Securing tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and research
Securing tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and researchSecuring tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and research
Securing tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and researchIlc Landcoalition
 

Similar to Women's participation in communal forests: experience from Nicaragua's indigenous territories (20)

Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving ahead
Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving aheadGender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving ahead
Gender analysis in forestry research: looking back and moving ahead
 
Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...
Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...
Strengthening women's tenure and rights to forests and trees and their partic...
 
Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management lo...
Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management  lo...Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management  lo...
Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management lo...
 
Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020
Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020
Dr. Marlene Elias & Dr. Pricilla Marimo, CGIAR, Rome, Aug 7, 2020
 
Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...
Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...
Does forest decentralization strengthen women’s adaptive capacity to climate ...
 
5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects
5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects
5Gender and Management of Vegetative Cover Projects
 
People and forests trajectory
People and forests trajectoryPeople and forests trajectory
People and forests trajectory
 
Gender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projects
Gender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projectsGender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projects
Gender and Social Inclusion in West Africa projects
 
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
 
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
Getting a seat at the table: Strengthening women’s tenure rights and particip...
 
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest ten...
 
Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...
Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...
Inclusiveness of community landscape governance in northern Ghana: Analysis o...
 
26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure
26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure
26 1115 regional 2_recoftc gender and customary tenure
 
Lecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIAT
Lecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIATLecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIAT
Lecture: Gender, Agriculture and Climate Change, Jennifer Twyman, CIAT
 
Crafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender Research
Crafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender ResearchCrafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender Research
Crafting the Next Generation of CGIAR Gender Research
 
Gender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate changeGender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate change
 
Gender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate changeGender, participation and cimate change
Gender, participation and cimate change
 
Participatory gender training for farmer groups
Participatory gender training for farmer groupsParticipatory gender training for farmer groups
Participatory gender training for farmer groups
 
Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...
Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...
Disrupting Institutional Rules & Organizational Practices for Women's Rights ...
 
Securing tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and research
Securing tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and researchSecuring tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and research
Securing tenure rights among the rural women: priorities for action and research
 

More from CIFOR-ICRAF

Cenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASIL
Cenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASILCenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASIL
Cenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASILCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for IndonesiaMangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for IndonesiaCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planetTrees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planetCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi globalKebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi globalCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementationBlue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementationCIFOR-ICRAF
 
The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...
The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...
The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...
Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...
Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​
Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​
Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...
Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi  dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi  dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...
Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Peluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutan
Peluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutanPeluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutan
Peluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutanCIFOR-ICRAF
 
Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...
Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...
Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...
Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...
Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
The evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the years
The evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the yearsThe evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the years
The evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the yearsCIFOR-ICRAF
 
WP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicas
WP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicasWP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicas
WP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicasCIFOR-ICRAF
 
¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...
¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...
¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...CIFOR-ICRAF
 
Comunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicas
Comunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicasComunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicas
Comunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicasCIFOR-ICRAF
 

More from CIFOR-ICRAF (20)

Cenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASIL
Cenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASILCenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASIL
Cenários de desmatamento para o Brasil Plataforma REDD BRASIL
 
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon  as Natural...
Research priorities in seagrass ecosystems to enhance blue carbon as Natural...
 
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
The role of mangrove blue carbon research to support national climate mitigat...
 
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for IndonesiaMangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
Mangrove restoration – where to restore & can we monitor? case for Indonesia
 
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planetTrees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
Trees, forests and landscapes for people and the planet
 
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
Blue Carbon Dialogue: Bridging Science and Policy for Effective Implementatio...
 
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
Academic Framework of Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE)
 
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi globalKebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
Kebijakan Blue Carbon dalam operasionalisasi global
 
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementationBlue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
Blue Carbon Dialogue: From science-based policy to implementation
 
The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...
The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...
The evolution of REDD+ finance in DRC across the years: The rise of private R...
 
Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...
Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...
Diskusi penguatan Rencana Aksi Nasional kelapa sawit berkelanjutan melalui Te...
 
Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​
Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​
Simulation of Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability (SIPOS)​
 
Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...
Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi  dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi  dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...
Tantangan penerapan pendekatan yuridiksi dari tinjauan rantai nilai industri...
 
Peluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutan
Peluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutanPeluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutan
Peluang dan tantangan untuk rantai suplai sawit berkelanjutan
 
Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...
Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...
Pengenalan Riset: Perluasan Pendekatan Yurisdiksi pada Sektor Kelapa Sawit di...
 
Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...
Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...
Balance de los tres años de las plataformas de ciencia y políticas públicas d...
 
The evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the years
The evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the yearsThe evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the years
The evolution of REDD+ finance in Peru across the years
 
WP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicas
WP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicasWP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicas
WP4.2 – Escenarios de deforestación para construir políticas públicas
 
¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...
¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...
¿Cómo la ciencia forestal ayuda a construir la política pública climática? La...
 
Comunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicas
Comunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicasComunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicas
Comunicar la ciencia para mejores políticas públicas
 

Recently uploaded

The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...
The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...
The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...GreenBiz Group
 
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and CommunitiesPartnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and CommunitiesGreenBiz Group
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdfInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdfadmin944664
 
Incorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG Goals
Incorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG GoalsIncorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG Goals
Incorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG GoalsGreenBiz Group
 
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptxNational Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptxNeeraj Kumar Rai
 
Scope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah Golden
Scope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah GoldenScope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah Golden
Scope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah GoldenGreenBiz Group
 
Why collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progress
Why collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progressWhy collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progress
Why collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progressGreenBiz Group
 
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPTTypes of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPTrakesh64416
 
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdfThat tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdfdrsk203
 
CSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 Planet
CSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 PlanetCSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 Planet
CSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 PlanetMatthieu Bruckert
 
Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...
Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...
Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...GreenBiz Group
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptxInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptxadmin944664
 
Role of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.ppt
Role of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.pptRole of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.ppt
Role of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.pptrangaswamyranga8341
 
Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...
Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...
Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...GreenBiz Group
 
The Complete Guide to Leaf Area Index
The Complete Guide to Leaf Area IndexThe Complete Guide to Leaf Area Index
The Complete Guide to Leaf Area IndexMETER Group, Inc. USA
 

Recently uploaded (20)

COSME Project - Community Engagement Experiences & Best Practice
COSME Project - Community Engagement Experiences & Best PracticeCOSME Project - Community Engagement Experiences & Best Practice
COSME Project - Community Engagement Experiences & Best Practice
 
The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...
The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...
The Power of Public-Private Partnerships: Cross Sector Collaboration for Futu...
 
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and CommunitiesPartnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
Partnering for Resilient Forests - Climate, Fires, and Communities
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdfInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pdf
 
Incorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG Goals
Incorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG GoalsIncorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG Goals
Incorporating Water and Energy Data into Your Sustainability and ESG Goals
 
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptxNational Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
National Safety Week 2024 ppt by Neeraj Rai.pptx
 
Climate Resilience Community Village Plans - Lessons from Sudan
Climate Resilience Community Village Plans - Lessons from SudanClimate Resilience Community Village Plans - Lessons from Sudan
Climate Resilience Community Village Plans - Lessons from Sudan
 
Scope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah Golden
Scope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah GoldenScope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah Golden
Scope 3 Bootcamp Tutorial - Sarah Golden
 
Why collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progress
Why collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progressWhy collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progress
Why collaborating with your communications team is key to driving progress
 
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPTTypes of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
Types of Natural Vegetation in India PPT
 
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdfThat tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
That tree related to god(wild's gravity).pdf
 
CSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 Planet
CSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 PlanetCSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 Planet
CSR01P2 The foundations of CSR Part 2 Planet
 
Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...
Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...
Meeting Your Energy Sustainability Goals - A Case Study with Top Industry Exp...
 
How to do note: Formulating a CR-CVP - Lessons from Brazil
How to do note: Formulating a CR-CVP - Lessons from BrazilHow to do note: Formulating a CR-CVP - Lessons from Brazil
How to do note: Formulating a CR-CVP - Lessons from Brazil
 
Indigenous Peoples, and local communities: Why the distinction is important
Indigenous Peoples, and local communities: Why the distinction is importantIndigenous Peoples, and local communities: Why the distinction is important
Indigenous Peoples, and local communities: Why the distinction is important
 
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptxInvasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx
 
Smiling Faces Photo Reel 2024 Annual Meeting
Smiling Faces Photo Reel 2024 Annual MeetingSmiling Faces Photo Reel 2024 Annual Meeting
Smiling Faces Photo Reel 2024 Annual Meeting
 
Role of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.ppt
Role of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.pptRole of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.ppt
Role of soil aeration for crop growth and its development.ppt
 
Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...
Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...
Accelerating the Journey to Scope 3 Decarbonization Factors Driving Success -...
 
The Complete Guide to Leaf Area Index
The Complete Guide to Leaf Area IndexThe Complete Guide to Leaf Area Index
The Complete Guide to Leaf Area Index
 

Women's participation in communal forests: experience from Nicaragua's indigenous territories

  • 1. Women’s Participation in Communal Forests: Experience from Nicaragua’s Kristen Evans*, Selmira Flores# and Anne Larson* October 9, 2014 Salt Lake City, Utah IUFRO *CIFOR, #Nitlapan-UCA Indigenous Territories
  • 2. Background: Why this research?  Little research exists on indigenous women’s participation in forest use and management in communal lands in Latin America.  In Nicaragua, women theoretically (by law) have equal rights to forest resources and decision making.  However, empirical evidence points to important inequalities in access and rights.  Who will decide the future of communal forests?
  • 3. Research questions  How are indigenous women “participating” in decision-making about forests and forest resources?  What are the constraints and opportunities to equitable participation by Miskitas and Mayangnas in decision-making?  What strategies can improve the participation of these groups of women?
  • 4. Study site: Northern Caribbean Autonomous Region (RACN)  Majority indigenous: Miskitu (57%) and Mayangna (4%)1  Communal land tenure with new conflicts arising (saneamiento)  43% forest cover2  Subsistence livelihoods complemented with periodic cash sales of forest products and wage labor 1 INIDE 2005 VIII Population Census, Managua, Nicaragua. 2 INAFOR 2008. Inventario Forestal 2007-08. Instituto Nacional Forestal, Managua, Nicaragua.
  • 5. Methods Methodology Results/Outcomes Household surveys 300 surveys of men and women (50% each) about participation in use, sale and decision-making with regard to the forest. Quantify nature of participation in decision-making and provide baseline. How do women participate? Adaptive collaborative management Participatory action research methods to open up decision-making spaces to women at the community level. Strengthen participation through shared activities; identify constraints and strategies to broaden participation in public spaces. How can women’s participation at the community level be improved? Semi-structured interviews Interviews with community leaders and members (men and women) Identify the driving forces, attitudes and interactions in both the public and private sphere that limit or encourage participation. What are the obstacles to women’s participation at the community level?
  • 6. Perceptions on participation (1) Women are involved in forest-related decision making at the following levels… % of respondent type who agreed Male Female Household* 88.7 80.5 As a member of a community group 80.9 75.5 In local council meetings 78.7 73.6 In meetings with other stakeholders eg. NGOs, researchers etc. 76.6 62.9 * Difference is significant Source: Survey of 300 households in 9 communities
  • 7. Perceptions on participation (2) % of respondent type who agreed Statement Male Female Women are adequately included in local forest management decision making 70.9 66.0 Women’s participation in forest management decisions is good or very good (in terms of quality and capacity) 26.2 25.8
  • 8. Extraction of forest products % Extracting Nicaragua Households Males Females Wood 51.0 48.3 2.7 Posts 38.3 37.7 0.7 Firewood 71.3 68.7 2.7 Animals 42.3 42.0 0.3 Fruits 36.3 32.3 4.0 Artisan materials 10.7 8.7 2.0 Herbs 35.3 27.7 7.7 Honey 20.3 20.3 0.0
  • 9. Forest product sales and control of income Of those hh selling, % who sells Of those hh selling, % controlling the money Resource Percentage of households that sell Man Woman Both Man Woman Both Wood 33.3 55.6 37.4 7.0 28.3 20.2 51.5 Posts 12.0 58.3 38.9 2.8 38.9 16.7 44.4 Firewood 5.7 35.3 23.5 41.2 17.6 11.8 70.6 Animals 16.7 40.8 26.5 32.6 20.4 22.4 57.1 Fruits 12.7 23.7 36.8 39.5 13.2 39.5 47.4 Artisan materials 5.3 25.0 62.5 12.5 6.2 59.2 37.5 Herbs 3.7 36.4 45.4 18.2 18.2 54.6 27.3 Honey 3.0 44.4 44.4 11.1 22.2 55.6 22.2
  • 10. If women are participating so much, is there a problem?  Many agree women are participating, but what is the nature of “participation”?  34% of women stated that women’s inclusion is NOT adequate  75% (men and women) said women do not have the capacity to participate so perhaps apparently “adequate” participation is based on this perception?  Though control over income appears more equitable than expected, 1) it is not clear that this is so true in practice and 2) this is only one type of forest decision-making on communal lands (focused at the hh level where men and women agree that women participate much more)  What about larger scale issues such as conservation, climate change, resilience or food security as these relate to forests - decisions that tend to take place in spheres beyond the household?
  • 11. ACM Activities To explore the nature of women’s participation in decision-making and facilitate involvement of women in decision-making about their communal forest in the public sphere.  Workshops and field activities in planning and implementing a small-scale forest-related project designed and developed by the community: tree nurseries, reforestation, governance training.  Participatory monitoring activities to open spaces for discussion and reflection about participation
  • 12. Findings: Constraints at the household level limit participation “In order for women to participate, they have to find a way to negotiate with and convince their husbands.” – community woman  Pressure by spouses limits participation  Sanctions can include domestic violence  Childcare concerns
  • 13. Findings: Constraints at the community level limit participation  Weak community governance and conflict  Traditional community leaders control participation (of both men and women): • Not everyone is invited to meetings and “participation” may be limited to “presence”  Lack of support for women’s organizations and conflict among women  Overt strategies to discourage the participation of women  Social problems that break down the community fabric: drugs, crime, youth pregnancies, domestic violence
  • 14. Gender and decision-making Macro Political Cultural National Global Meso Community Territorial Local economy Micro Household Forest Community Organization Laws requiring representation/ granting rights Selling forest products Level of participation (Agarwal 2001) Deciding use of $ (Colfer 2013) Nominal Passive Consultative Activity-specific Active Interactive
  • 15. Conclusions  Women make decisions about natural resources at the household level.  However, women’s participation in decision-making in the public sphere is challenged by tradition, household influences, and overt efforts to limit it by leaders.  Weak community governance and internal conflicts limit women’s potential to organize and participate actively.  Statistical survey data only gives us part of the story.  Difficult issues like gender cannot be addressed only in the public sphere: the private sphere matters too.
  • 16. Recommendations  Build leadership and governance capacity with women.  Strengthen community governance, including organization systems, advocacy, participatory mechanisms, administration, gender and equity, and forest management.  Strengthen the organization of women and encourage the development of political agendas that include a short and long-term vision.  Boost alternative mechanisms that contribute to and guarantee that women contribute actively in decision-making spaces such as assemblies and meetings.  Promote communication between leaders and community members to involve them in various levels of participation.  Address the pervasive incidence of domestic violence.

Editor's Notes

  1. Layout: Title Slide Variation: none
  2. what happens inside communal areas? Many of Nicaragua’s tropical forests are now inside titled indigenous territories. We know that forests in Nicaragua’s indigenous territories have increasingly become seen as arenas for timber and therefore also arenas for men. Historically this was not the case.
  3. There are three important issues to note here: A high portion of men and women agree that women are participating in forest-related decisions at all levels Men’s estimates are consistently higher than women’s though this difference is only significant at the hh level Women’s participation declines from the household to arenas that are increasingly “public” or formal Key question #1: What does “involvement” or participation mean?
  4. Key question #2: What is “adequate” participation? Do 66-71% agree that participation is “adequate” because they don’t think women should be involved?
  5. The prevailing wisdom on gender and forest products is that men extract timber and women extract firewood and NTFPs. Our data concurs with a new study on the Poverty and Environment Network findings that this does not hold true in Latin America. In our study sites, indigenous women are extracting very few products from the forest.
  6. Previous slide: women are not extracting much at all yet perhaps surprisingly they participate substantially in sales. In comparison to women, men more often sell the timber resources and fauna and women other non timber products Though men still more often control the income from timber products, 44 to 71% interviewed report that both control the income (this is an important finding. However, it needs further inquiry, as other studies (reporting the same result in Nicaragua) reveal a different story when more detailed questions are asked. Women are more likely to control the income from the products they sell (statistically significant finding across Uganda and Nicaragua)
  7. If you want more information on ACM, come to the book launch tomorrow at 12!
  8. Ex: Cururia (domestic violence) Ex. Iltara (childcare)
  9. Ex: SF and wihta
  10. -World Economic Forum Gender Gap ranks Nicaragua as #10 -Colfer, C.J.P., 2013. The gender box: a framework for analysing gender roles in forest management (Occasional Paper). Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. -Agarwal, B., 2001. Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry, and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework. World Development 29, 1623–1648