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Women, men and the management of forests and landscapes


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Presented by CIFOR Scientist Amy Duchelle on 14 December 2016 at a side event on Mainstreaming Gender Equality and Social Inclusion at CBD COP13 in Cancun, Mexico.

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Women, men and the management of forests and landscapes

  1. 1. WOMEN, MEN AND THE MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS AND LANDSCAPES Amy Duchelle – Scientist – Climate Change, Energy & Low Carbon Development Event: “Mainstreaming Gender Equality and Social Inclusion” Cancun, 14th December 2016
  2. 2. STRONG GENDER FOCUS IN NEW CIFOR STRATEGY • Rural women play key role in forestry sector in many developing countries • Yet gender inequities remain pervasive in governance of forests and landscapes • Undermines local resource conditions, and constrains ability of women to realize full range of capabilities
  3. 3. GENDER INTEGRATION ACROSS RESEARCH THEMES • Effect of women’s participation on local resource conditions • Effect of migration on women’s influence in forestry decision-making • Effect of agribusiness expansion on women’s livelihoods • Nature of gender inclusion in REDD+ • Role of women in timber value chains
  4. 4. 1. GENDER COMPOSITION OF NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT GROUPS Systematic map: provides an overview of existing evidence
  5. 5. STUDY SELECTION • 11,069 records by title/abstract => 113 for full review => 17 studies included in systematic map Leisher et al. 2016
  6. 6. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS • All studies identified improvements in natural resource governance – and 3 identified conservation benefits – when women participated in management groups • Other influencers: landlessness, caste, wealth, education, political/economic inequality • Substantial gaps in the evidence base, yet clear priorities for future research (work in regions beyond South Asia, identifying causal pathways for theory of change etc.) Leisher et al. 2016
  7. 7. COMPLEMENTARY EVIDENCE • Determinants of women’s participation: less exclusive institutions, more education, less income inequality across genders • Institutional outcomes associated with women’s participation: less disruptive conflict, but little effect on perceived fairness of rules • Mixed evidence of environmental outcomes associated with women’s participation
  8. 8. 2. POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENT NETWORK (PEN) • Large, tropics-wide collection of detailed, high-quality & comparable data by PhD students on the poverty-forest (environment) nexus, coordinated by CIFOR, with partners • Most comprehensive analysis of poverty-forest linkages to date (24 countries ─ 364 villages ─ 8,000+ households)
  10. 10. IS HARVESTING OF FOREST PRODUCTS MAINLY UNDERTAKEN BY WOMEN? • The data do not support this claim • For unprocessed products, this claim only holds in Sub- Saharan Africa • For processed products, it does not hold in any geographical location Sunderland et al. 2014
  11. 11. DO WOMEN COLLECT PRIMARILY FOR SUBSISTENCE AND MEN FOR SALE? • Both women and men collect predominantly for subsistence use, but … • Men´s sale share is higher than women´s • However, in Sub- Saharan Africa, the share is almost equal Sunderland et al. 2014
  12. 12. DO WOMEN COLLECT GREATER SHARE OF FOREST PRODUCTS FROM LANDS UNDER COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES THAN MEN? • Vast majority of products for men and women collected under state property tenure regimes • In global sample, proportion collected by men and women from common property is about the same • Conventional claim holds for Latin America and Asia, but not for Africa Sunderland et al. 2014
  13. 13. SUMMARY OF PEN GENDER FINDINGS • Large regional variation in both the shares of forest products collected by women • Even after controlling for most of the factors discussed in the literature, as well as differences in level of market integration, women in Africa collect a much larger share of forest products than women in Asia and Latin America • Many of the claims that originate from the gender and forest literature do not hold using the PEN global data sample • Men play a much more important and diverse role in the contribution of forest products to rural livelihoods than is often reported Sunderland et al. 2014
  14. 14. 3. GLOBAL COMPARATIVE STUDY (GCS) ON REDD+ • 6 countries • 22 initiatives • 150 villages • 4,000 households Comparison (Control) REDD+ site (Intervention) Before After IMPACT Intervention After Control After Intervention Before Control Before 2010 / 2011 2013 / 2014
  15. 15. WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN EARLY REDD+ IMPLEMENTATION Higher knowledge of and participation in early REDD+ initiatives reported from (male-dominated) village focus groups compared to women’s focus groups
  16. 16. PARTICIPATION FINDINGS IN PHASE 2 (2013/14) Larson et al. forthcoming, IUCN book 91% 63% 51% 92% 76% 75% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Knowledge of initiative Decision to implement Design & Implementation %focusgroups(n=150) Women Men
  17. 17. IMPACTS ON WELL-BEING • Almost half of women’s focus groups said having own source of income was important for women’s well-being • For those women who reported improved well-being in Phase 2, the second most common reason given (19% of villages) was gender equity/ women’s empowerment • Nevertheless, overall, preliminary evidence shows REDD+ initiatives are not reducing – and in some cases appear to be widening – gender gaps Larson et al. in prep
  18. 18. NET CHANGE IN WELLBEING BY TYPE OF FOCUS GROUP Being located in a REDD+ site had a significant (p < .10) negative impact on women’s perceived wellbeing
  19. 19. REFLECTIONS ON COLLECTIVE FINDINGS • Global comparative studies useful in understanding gendered patterns of natural resource management, since long-held gender assumptions hold true in certain contexts but not others • Participation only partial solution to addressing women’s strategic needs in ways that could strengthen their position in forestry and conservation • Time to re-frame the consideration of gender equality in forestry in terms of women's rights, rather than justifying women's inclusion on the grounds that it would lead to other beneficial outcomes
  20. 20. THANK YOU