The term ‘secondary forests’ brings to mind logged, disturbed, slash-and-burn fallow forests and industrial plantations. But there are many secondary forests formed and maintained through arboriculture that are ‘invisible’ for outsiders because they tolerate other species (non-crops and wild animals) and are dispersed in the forest area with no clear boundaries. This presentation, given at the 8th IALE World Congress in Beijing, China on 18-23 August 2011, summarises a study that attempts to clarify how these human-modified forests are created and maintained, and what roles and meanings such forests have for local livelihoods and for biodiversity. Results revealed that indigenous arboriculture does encourage mildly interdependent relationships between wildlife and human livelihoods, typified by the case of the protected Mollucan cockatoo. Further study is needed to evaluate the value of arboriculture for effective national park management and biodiversity conservation compatible with local forest uses.