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Why managing and restoring tropical forests matter

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Presentation by Plinio Sist at “Managing and restoring natural tropical forests: Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change” Discussion Forum on the first day of the Global Landscapes Forum 2015, in Paris, France alongside COP21. For more information go to: www.landscapes.org.

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Why managing and restoring tropical forests matter

  1. 1. Managing and restoring natural tropical forests Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change Plinio Sist, sist@cirad.fr Discussion forum Why managing and restoring tropical forests matter ?
  2. 2. 50% of the World Forests Tropical Forests 27 % of the Terrestrial Carbon stock 50 % of terrestrial species
  3. 3. Deforestation still concentrated in tropical regions FAO 2005 Annual net forest gain/loss (2005) Deforestation 2010-2015 8.8 Mha/year (FRA 2015)
  4. 4. Logging = Degradation ? Conventional RIL
  5. 5. Forest Companies Farmers Forest Communities Partnerships A Diversity of Actors
  6. 6. The Main Challenges Debated in this Discussion Forum  Forest Degradation, Forest management, and restoration  The future role of tropical natural forests vs plantations  Production of goods and maintenance of environmental services Diversity of actors, interests and perceptions  Forest management and Restoration within landscape use planning
  7. 7. FSC certified forest management in Brazilian Amazon: current status and challenges Saturday 5 December 2015 Isabel GARCIA-DRIGO Managing and restoring natural tropical forests Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change
  8. 8. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Robert Nasi & Michael Galante 8 Forest lands to legal logging 24% © Galante Managing and restoring natural tropical forests: Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change Concessions granted until 2015 In 5 National Forest FMU Area : 842.000 ha Concessions to be granted in 2016: In 7 National Forest FMU Potential Area: 1,3 million ha Source: SFB (2016) Few or none private lands available...So forest concessions are the hope Forest Concessions only of Para State already granted: 475.000 ha Federal Forest Concessions Until 2015, the total area granted in concession = 1,3 million ha In average: 44.000/ha/year for legal logging
  9. 9. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Robert Nasi & Michael Galante Certified forest management 9 30% 24% © Galante Managing and restoring natural tropical forests: Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change FSC FM at National level Natural Forests ~1,6 million ha Plantations 4,8 million Ha 7 companies - 4 forest concessions 1 Community 2 companies 5 Communities 1 State Forest (gov. direct management) 2 companies - 1 forest concession 12 Companies 6 Communities 1 gov. managed area Area certified (in ha): Private land: 1,3 million Federal concessions: 99.000 Communities: 41.000 Para State Concessions: 136.000 Acre State Forest: 66.000 1 company
  10. 10. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Robert Nasi & Michael Galante we can see the glass half full..... 10 30% 24% © Galante Managing and restoring natural tropical forests: Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change  Total certified area= 1,6 million about 53.000/ha/year potential production  If annual cut in 20m3/ha/year about 1,0 million m3/year of certified timber available  18 % of the total forest concession area granted already certified  Potential to expand FSC in forest concessions: 1,6 million ha, if so, double the certified production
  11. 11. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Robert Nasi & Michael Galante ......or half empty 11 30% 24% © Galante Managing and restoring natural tropical forests: Ensuring a sustainable flow of benefits for people in the context of global change  Fulfill forest concessions contract requirements is not for everyone!  Public agents are still too slowly to solve contract problems  FSC certification is costly  Deficit of labor force well trained to perform RIL activities  Social and technical performance of Subcontractors: questionable  Unfair competition: illegal logging
  12. 12. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Robert Nasi & Michael Galante Merci! Thank you! Gracias! Grazie! Grata! isabel.drigo@gmail.com 12
  13. 13. Toward Concessions 2.0 in Central Africa Recognising and managing overlapping tenure rights Alain Karsenty, Cédric Vermeulen & Guillaume Lescuyer
  14. 14. Forest concessions in C. Africa are generally large, calling for land sharing
  15. 15. Concentration and fragmentation • With the increasing demographic density, the room for large-scale concessions is gradually shrinking (exceptions being essentially Gabon and Congo). - Some will inevitably be reduced (and probably converted to agricultural use at one stage), other will be transformed into community forests and households’ lands - Large concessions will remain where their role in structuring remote landscapes is key
  16. 16. Public and NGOs initiatives • New public regulations insist on timber revenues’ sharing (Gabon, Cameroon, Congo) and management plan often have provisions for “agricultural series” within the concessions – The “community development series” within concessions in Congo as a benefit sharing mechanism and socioeconomic reinvestment tool (but not working well)
  17. 17. Impact of NGO initiatives: MappingForRights (RFUK) and Rights and Resources Initiative work for mapping customary territories and rights recognition
  18. 18. Overlaps with timber concessions
  19. 19. … and with protected areas
  20. 20. Certification fosters tenure rights recognition Map of “finages” (customary tenure rights within concessions)
  21. 21. Beyond timber: developing new commodity chains jointly with communities • Competition with alternative land uses: oil palm, rubberwood, cocoa… often encouraged by national governments • An evolution of the forest concession system is desirable – and has probably started, especially in FSC-Certified ones • Need to shift from a mono-exploitation (timber) to a broader spectrum of activities mixing SFM and valorisation of NTFPs, genetic resources, agroforestry production, plantations on degraded lands and savannahs (including teak, cocoa, oil palm…), recreational hunting, energy production and distribution… • Acceptable only with the recognition of communities’ customary territories (“finages”) within the concessions: new economic activities developed jointly with the empowered populations
  22. 22. From land sparing to land sharing: designing concessions 2.0 as a hybrid between a company and a territorial institution • Systematic mapping of the customary territories (‘finages’) in an out the concessions and participative management and organization of the dual dimension of community forestry, combining overlapping areas and exclusive community concession areas • Gazetting of Forest Management Units, not yet completed in C. Africa, will provide the legal opportunity for adjustments of the boundaries to make room for viable SMEs
  23. 23. Managing the overlapping rights “by layers” • On the overlapping area management by layers: – Timber would remain an exclusive right of concessionaires (but with benefits sharing) but trees can be set aside (caterpillars…) after agreement with populations – Recreational hunting could be organised by a specialised operator, – Investment would be needed to create joint venture for commercial exploitation of NTFP – PES can finance timber and firewood plantations on restoration lands – Cash crops (cocoa, oil palm…) could be developed with households on degraded lands (outgrowing schemes with the concessionaire)… • Sharing the decision process on land-use and resources: – Concession’s Assembly with voting rights of the represented communities – “Comités de finages” set as a way to discuss specific problem and prepare joint-ventures • Implementation process would remain in the hands of the concessionaire, under the supervision of the administration and the concession’s assembly
  24. 24. Je n’ai pas tout compris… Thank you for your attention!
  25. 25. Thank you
  26. 26. Managing tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Saturday 5 December 2015 Michael Galante & Robert Nasi
  27. 27. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi Why production forests? -Globally production forests account for 30% of all designated forest types; and 24% account for multiple-use. -Tropical forests constitute ~400 million ha, affecting ~1 billion people. -If sustained and managed, they can continue to produce goods and services, i.e., timber, NTFP, protection of soil and water, conservation of biodiversity, and provision of social services. -However the maintenance of goods and services are possible only under different paradigms than are generally being practiced today. 27 30% 24% © Galante FAO, 2010
  28. 28. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi - 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1990 2000 2005 2010 Millionsofhectares(ha) Total area of deforesta on 170,000 180,000 190,000 200,000 210,000 220,000 230,000 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 Millionsofhectares(ha) Total area of forest - 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 Millionsofhectares(ha) Total area of for protec on and biodiversity - 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 Millionsofhectares(ha) Total area of primaryand produc on forest Produc on Primary Status and trends of production forests in Southeast Asia 28 FAO, 2015 FAO, 2015 FAO, 2015 FAO, 2015
  29. 29. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi Trends of forests cover on Borneo 29 FAO, 2015 FAO, 2015 55.8 M ha (76% of Borneo) 38.9 M ha (53% of Borneo) Gaveau et al. 2014 17.8 M ha logged forests 21 M ha (42% production forests)
  30. 30. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi A changing composition of diversity and dynamic 30 -Many forests have already been harvested at least once, with many areas multiple times. -A large proportion of tropical forests in Southeast Asia have changed in composition. -Primary forests have become the exception, and traditional approaches to management must be reconsidered. -Continued degradation will limit the forest management options available, and consequently, the associated multiple environmental, social and economic benefits, thereby increasing the risk of non-forest activities in the area. © Galante
  31. 31. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi Lessons learned: Approaches to forest management 31 -There is an urgent need for new management systems for logged-over forests as the existing ones will not work in the current and future conditions. -Improved approaches should support the flow of benefits for the people, the forest and its biodiversity, in the context of global change. -More needs to be learned about the consequences of interventions, other than just ground-based selective logging with reduced-impact logging. © Galante © Galante
  32. 32. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi Lessons learned: Concession management 32 -New models are need to create the enabling environment for better concession management -Well managed tropical forests represent a ‘middle way’ between deforestation and total forest protection -Concessions are a good model to devolve timber or forest product rights to operators (who can be local communities) -Rather than expecting sustained timber yield, without changes in species or quality, emphasis should assure production forests remain in the best possible condition. © Galante © Galante
  33. 33. Tropical forests in an era of change: Southeast Asia Michael Galante & Robert Nasi Lessons learned: The value of logged-over forest 33 -The integrity of the composition of tropical forests is integral to the genetic diversity found in Southeast Asia. -Maintaining multi-tiered forest structures supports complex ecosystem dynamics for both the integrity of the forest, and the biodiversity within. © Galante © Galante © Galante Putz et. al., 2012
  34. 34. Thank You
  35. 35. Forest Landscape Restoration as a Key Component of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation John Stanturf: Climate Benefits of FLR Stephanie Mansourian: Governance and FLR
  36. 36. Background and Our Objectives Where are we? Status of implementation In place Partly in place Not in place Where do we want to go? Prioritization of future implementation Desirable Maybe Undesirable • Inter-linked FLR and climate policy • Success requires many motivated actors doing the right things • Promote understanding of linkages, simple communication products, participatory planning, and joint evaluation of FLR initiatives • Best available information on mitigation, adaptation, and transformation activities • A “stoplight” tool to evaluate, design, or communicate an FLR project
  37. 37. Climate Benefits of Forest Landscape Restoration John Stanturf
  38. 38. Mitigation Benefit Mechanism Restoration Activity Sequester carbon Increase forest area Recolonization Afforestation/Reforestation Increase biomass/unit area Increase productivity Introduce longer–lived species Increase soil carbon Add biochar Soil conservation to reduce erosion Reduce fossil fuel emissions Bioenergy Firewood, charcoal, forest residues Bioenergy plantations Substitute materials with greater carbon footprint Wood-based bioproducts (e.g. construction materials Reduce emissions from biomass burning Control GHG emissions from wildfire Prescribed burning and holistic fire management Convert to fire resistant species Increase biofuel use efficiency More efficient stoves Improve charcoal production Reduce emissions from land use change Reduce deforestation drivers Policy reforms to promote increasing trees in the landscape Effective protection
  39. 39. Adaptation Benefit (Incremental/Anticipatory) Mechanism Restoration Activity Maintain forest area Reduce deforestation drivers Policy reforms to promote increasing trees in the landscape (e.g., secure tenure) Effective protection (e.g., improved enforcement) Maintain carbon stocks Reduce or avoid degradation Utilize existing participatory forest management programs (e.g., community forests) Reduce illegal logging Maintain or improve other forest functions Biodiversity Expand reserves Manage hunting (protect seed dispersers) Afforest, reforest, or agroforest with mixed species Hydrology Protect catchment areas, to benefit downstream users Restore stream hydroperiod Rural economy Promote forest-based value chains Improve timber productivity
  40. 40. Adaptation Benefit (Incremental/Anticipatory) Mechanism Restoration Activity Reduce vulnerability Increase resistance and resilience Thin to increase drought resistance Integrated pest management Overcome regeneration barriers Control herbivory Enhance dispersal by removing barriers and creating connectivity Assisted population migration Reintroduce species within historic range that have become extirpated Expand population within the historic range Assisted range expansion Expand just beyond historic range, mimicking natural range expansion Create refugia Identify and create microclimate refugia for in situ conservation of climate-threatened species
  41. 41. Adaptation Benefit (Transformation) Mechanism Restoration Activity Manage novel ecosystems Manage spontaneous ecosystems Manage new species combinations that emerge (e.g., non-natives, altered dominance of natives) Create ecosystems Policy that allows planting non-native species or transgenic trees Assisted long distance species migration (well outside historic range) Create and plant new species that are climate- adapted (using synthetic biology) with desired functional traits Rewilding (re-introduce extirpated or extinct species) Ecosystem with novelty (replace native species with non-natives having desired functional traits) Neo-native ecosystems (moving communities of native species) Novel ecosystems (combinations of native and non-native species with desired functional traits; designer ecosystems)
  42. 42. Governance and Forest Landscape Restoration Stephanie Mansourian
  43. 43. What is governance? • Governance determines who takes decisions, and how these decisions are taken and applied. • Environmental governance comprises “the rules, practices, policies and institutions that shape how humans interact with the environment” (UNEP, no year).
  44. 44. How does Governance relate to FLR? • FLR is a process • Governance influences different stages of this process
  45. 45. Five Reasons why Governance is important in FLR • Understanding the root causes of forest degradation and loss is essential for successful restoration, and frequently these may be traced back to a range of governance failures. • New value is generated - by returning trees and forests to the landscape -> potential for conflict if governance is unclear
  46. 46. Five Reasons why Governance is important in FLR (contd.) • Competing land use – Allocating land for forest restoration signifies reducing the options to use that land for other purposes (e.g. food production or mining). • Tenure and rights – In landscapes , often a range of tenure and rights systems (or even unclear tenure) leading to increased risk of conflict. • Scaling up – Scaling up implies an increase in the number of actors, thereby also adding further complexity in governance matters.
  47. 47. Final word…. • In order to arrive at climate benefits many of the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation need to be removed or at least altered in ways that allow restoration activities to occur and to be sustainable • Many of these underlying causes represent governance challenges

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