When local practices oppose conservation policies the role of local elites in preventing encroachments in national parks. A case study at Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatera, Indonesia
When local practices oppose conservation policies: the role of local elites in preventing encroachments in National ParksA case study at Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatera, Indonesia. <br />By Yulia Rahma Fitriana, Jhon Roy Sirait and Patrice Levang<br />“Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry: Where do we go from here?”<br />Montpellier, 24 - 26 March 2010<br />
Presentation Plan<br />1. Introduction: <br /> Encroachment within National Park<br /><ul><li>Conservation versus development
The case study: BukitBarisan Selatan National Park
Methods</li></ul>2. Results and discussion <br /><ul><li>Law enforcement: an efficient tool to protect the Park?
Implementing low enforcement to meet the diverse needs of villages
People involved in coffee plantation activities<br />
Implementation of law enforcement: is it a solution?<br />Flores and Faunas <br />in Protected Area<br />People<br />Research questions:<br /><ul><li>Why is there such a variations in the number of encroachment along the National Park?
Is law enforcement capable of securing the border of the Park or there other elements at play?</li></li></ul><li>Methods <br />Literature Review<br />Data collection was gathered from:<br />11 villages around the Park<br />63 hamlets chiefs (6000 HH) <br />Park’s officers<br />Involved NGOs<br />
Village sample<br />Source: Gaveau (2009)<br />Location of villages around the Park<br />
Law Enforcement: an efficient tool to protect the Park?<br />
Typology of households within the villages<br />Protection forest<br />Squatters<br />Villagers<br />Encroachers<br />National Park<br />Village area<br />Villagerslive and hold coffee plantations outside the Park<br /> Encroachers live in the village and hold plantations both inside and outside the park<br /> Squatters live and hold coffee plantations inside the Park<br /> Landless farmers who do not have land ownership<br />
Diversity of Implementation of Law Enforcement around the Park<br />3<br />4<br />2<br />1<br />Low patrol level and sanction frequency<br /> High patrol level and low sanction frequency<br /> Low patrol level and high sanction frequency<br /> High patrol and sanction frequency<br />
Law enforcement and encroachment level <br />Trimulyo<br />Pemerihan<br />Pagar Bukit<br />Rata Agung<br />TebingRambutan<br />Pelita Jaya<br />
Law enforcement is not easy to implement <br />HIDE OR BRIBE? <br /><ul><li> Comparison between forest rangers, National Park’s officers and surface and local people
Corruption and collusion in the law enforcement system </li></li></ul><li>Law enforcement must target local elites not the individual squatters<br /><ul><li>Pro</li></ul>Being involved in Park management: extension programs, rural development projects, maintaining the Park’s boarders, determining local policy regarding the Park’s protection<br /><ul><li>Cons</li></ul>Neglecting the Park protection policy and support <br />the encroachment activity<br />
4. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Coffee plantations inside protected area are the important source of income for most villages households in the around the Park.
The intensification of law enforcement applied until now can not solve the problem of increasing number of encroachers in the Park.
The role that local elites play can be both beneficial and harmful to the Park’s conservation.
The role of local elites must be considered while creating conservation enforcement: rewarding or punishing the local leaders in all around the Park. </li></li></ul><li>THANK YOU<br />