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When local practices oppose conservation policies: the role of local elites in preventing encroachments in national parks

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Yulia Rahma Fitriana, Jhon Roy Sirait and Patrice Levang

“Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry: Where do we go from here?”
Montpellier, 24 - 26 March 2010

Published in: Education
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When local practices oppose conservation policies: the role of local elites in preventing encroachments in national parks

  1. 1. When local practices oppose conservation policies: the role of local elites in preventing encroachments in National Parks A case study at Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatera, Indonesia. By Yulia Rahma Fitriana, Jhon Roy Sirait and Patrice Levang “ Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry: Where do we go from here?” Montpellier, 24 - 26 March 2010
  2. 2. Presentation Plan <ul><li>1. Introduction: </li></ul><ul><li>Encroachment within National Park </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation versus development </li></ul><ul><li>The case study: Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>2. Results and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement: an efficient tool to protect the Park? </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing low enforcement to meet the diverse needs of villages </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement and encroachment level </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement is not easy to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Law enforcement must target local elites not the individual squatters </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Introduction: Encroachment within National Park
  4. 4. Conservation versus development Flora and Fauna in Protected Area People
  5. 5. The case study: Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBSNP) Locating BBSNP in Indonesia
  6. 11. Coffee Plantations in the Park
  7. 12. People involved in coffee plantation activities
  8. 13. People Implementation of law enforcement: is it a solution? <ul><li>Research questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there such a variations in the number of encroachment along the National Park? </li></ul><ul><li>Is law enforcement capable of securing the border of the Park or there other elements at play? </li></ul>Flores and Faunas in Protected Area
  9. 14. Methods Literature Review Data collection was gathered from: 11 villages around the Park Park’s officers 63 hamlets chiefs (6000 HH) Involved NGOs
  10. 15. Location of villages around the Park Source: Gaveau (2009) Village sample
  11. 16. 2. Results
  12. 17. Law Enforcement: an efficient tool to protect the Park?
  13. 18. Typology of households within the villages <ul><li>Villagers live and hold coffee plantations outside the Park </li></ul><ul><li>  Encroachers live in the village and hold plantations both inside and outside the park </li></ul><ul><li>  Squatters live and hold coffee plantations inside the Park </li></ul><ul><li>Landless farmers who do not have land ownership </li></ul>Villagers Encroachers Squatters Protection forest National Park Village area
  14. 19. Diversity of Implementation of Law Enforcement around the Park <ul><li>Low patrol level and sanction frequency </li></ul><ul><li>  High patrol level and low sanction frequency </li></ul><ul><li>  Low patrol level and high sanction frequency </li></ul><ul><li>High patrol and sanction frequency </li></ul>
  15. 20. Trimulyo Pagar Bukit Pelita Jaya Tebing Rambutan Pemerihan Rata Agung Law enforcement and encroachment level
  16. 22. Law enforcement is not easy to implement HIDE OR BRIBE? <ul><li>Comparison between forest rangers, National Park’s officers and surface and local people </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption and collusion in the law enforcement system </li></ul>
  17. 23. Law enforcement must target local elites not the individual squatters <ul><li>Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Being involved in Park management: extension programs, rural development projects, maintaining the Park’s boarders, determining local policy regarding the Park’s protection </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Neglecting the Park protection policy and support </li></ul><ul><li>the encroachment activity </li></ul>
  18. 24. 4. Conclusion <ul><li>Coffee plantations inside protected area are the important source of income for most villages households in the around the Park. </li></ul><ul><li>The intensification of law enforcement applied until now can not solve the problem of increasing number of encroachers in the Park. </li></ul><ul><li>The role that local elites play can be both beneficial and harmful to the Park’s conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of local elites must be considered while creating conservation enforcement: rewarding or punishing the local leaders in all around the Park. </li></ul>
  19. 25. THANK YOU

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