What are the barriers and opportunities to conditional incentives in REDD+ projects?


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Dr William Sunderlin gave this presentation in Bonn, Germany on 5 June 2013 at an event organized by CIFOR titled ‘REDD+ performance and verification: Insights from CIFOR’s Global Comparative Study (GCS) on REDD+’. This was an official side event to the 2013 Bonn Climate Change Conference.

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What are the barriers and opportunities to conditional incentives in REDD+ projects?

  1. 1. What are the barriers and opportunities toconditional incentives in REDD+ projects?William D. Sunderlin, Andini Desita Ekaputri, Amy Duchelle, Erin Sills, Demetrius KwekaSBSTA side event on “REDD+ performance and verification:Insights from CIFOR’s Global Comparative Study (GCS)”Bonn, Germany, June 5, 2013
  2. 2. Outline• Global Comparative Study on REDD+• Proponent challenges survey• Characterization of projects• Barriers• Opportunities• Some thoughts
  3. 3. Global Comparative Study on REDD+
  4. 4. Module 2 regions, countries, projects
  5. 5. Proponent Challenges Survey• In-depth survey interview of 23 proponentorganizations to ask:What are the barriers and opportunities toimplementation of REDD+ projects in terms ofattaining the 3Es and co-benefits?• Research question in this presentation:What are the barriers and opportunities to moveto conditional REDD+ incentives in REDD+projects?
  6. 6. Proponent Challenges Survey1. Characterization of projects:– Sources of pressure on forests– Progress in implementation of interventions– Ranking of importance of interventions2. Barriers to implementation:– Most challenging factors (general)– Challenges in effectively sequestering forest carbon3. Opportunities:– Solutions toward effective sequestration
  7. 7. Definition of conditional incentives• Includes but is not equivalent to what peoplecommonly consider to be "PES"• Broad definition that includes:monetary and in-kind rewardsHousehold and village level rewardsPre-paid and paid upon delivery
  8. 8. 1. Characterization: Main sources of pressure33346778991011131719190 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20Large‐scale ranchingLarge‐scale timber harvest (illegal)Large‐scale timber harvest (legal)Large‐scale agricultureOtherCommercial fuelwood/charcoal collectionLarge‐scale plantationsNon-wood forest products harvestingMiningSmall‐scale legal timber harvestSmall or medium ranchersSubsistence fuelwood/charcoal collectionForest fireSmall‐scale frontier agriculture (colonists)Small‐scale illegal timber harvestSmall‐scale traditional agriculture (local inhabitants)n= 148 responses
  9. 9. 1. Characterization: Implementation of interventions919221419121911144213354720 5 10 15 20 25OthersTenure ClarificationEnv EducationLiv Enhance - CondLiv Enhance - Non CondForest EnhancementForest Access RestrictionProject sites (n=23)Begun Not yet begun Will not be done
  10. 10. 1. Characterization: Among the interventions that have begun or areplanned, which is potentially the most important for effectively reducingdeforestation and forest degradation at your site?11223590 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10UnknownForest enhancementsLivelihood enhancements (non-conditional)Forest access restrictionsTenure clarificationOthersLivelihood enhancements (conditional)Project sites (n=23)
  11. 11. 1. Characterization: Among the interventions that have begun or areplanned, which is potentially the most important for effectively reducingdeforestation and forest degradation at your site?1113111121111111310 2 4 6 8 10UnknownForest enhancementsLivelihood enhancements (non-conditional)Forest access restrictions and conversionTenure clarificationOthersLivelihood enhancements (conditional)Project sites (n=23)BRAZILCAMEROONINDONESIAPERUTANZANIAVIETNAM
  12. 12. 2. Ranking of ten most challenging of 62 factorsFactor ScoreGovernance: tenure conditions (national) 86National policy: tenure & land use 83International policy: REDD+ (economic) 83Governance: tenure cond. (reg./local) 80National policy: REDD+ (technical) 79National policy: REDD+ (economic) 79Political economy: BAU interests 78National policy: REDD+ (legal) 78National policy: forest 77Governance: capacity 77
  13. 13. 2. Which one of 62 factors has been the mostchallenging in implementing your REDD+ project?626%626%15%313%29%313%14%14%Project sites (n=23)Tenure policy and conditionsDisadvantegous economicsof REDD+International policyIssues related to localstakeholdersNational agricultural andforestry policiesNational and sub-nationalREDD+ policyProponent organizationdeficienciesUnknown
  14. 14. 2. Barriers: What are the main challenges you have experiencedin designing and implementing a project that will effectivelysequester or reduce emissions of forest carbon?• Engagement with the community• Collaboration with government institutions• Weak local governance• Tenure• Inadequacy of REDD+ financing• Creation of alternative income sources• Leakage
  15. 15. 2. Opportunities: What solutions do you envision in designingand implementing a project that will effectively sequester orreduce emissions of forest carbon?• Improved governance and government capacity• Improved engagement with local community• Tenure intervention• Intensive/sustainable agriculture• Community forest management• Intervene to change policy• Increase area to overcome leakage• Support low-carbon development planning• Devise improved financial incentives
  16. 16. Thoughts on barriers andopportunities• Tendency is to view REDD+ as whollyfocused on one intervention:conditional incentives• In fact, conditional incentives inREDD+ are preceded by, andfunctionally linked to, otherinterventions• This hybrid arrangement has allowedprojects to proceed in spite ofinhospitable REDD+ policy andeconomic conditions
  17. 17. We thank our donors!