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Village Forest Management as a way to protect biodiversity in Tanzania<br />Heini Vihemäki (World AgroforestryCentre) and ...
Background<br />the forest area under the control of communities (villages, groups) has increased during the past 15-20 ye...
Questions<br />What is the BD value of VFRs in the East Usambaras, and how they compare with other land uses outside stric...
Context: The East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania<br />Part of the Eastern Arcs<br />contain 6/19 Eastern Arc endemic and 13/...
Methods<br />botanical and bird survey covering a gradient from VFRs to agroforests and more open land uses in 3 village l...
Methods & materials<br />Bird surveys: Time Species Count (non-VFR) and mist netting (VFRs)<br />Vegetation survey plots:<...
Results on plant sp diversity<br />
Results on Bird diversity<br />High diversity: in total, 89 bird species recorded in the three village landscapes, includi...
Prospects of Continuity<br />Motivation and Attitudes of local people: Generally attitude positive, but high variation wit...
Conclusions<br />VFRs can be conducive to BD conservation objectives, as they support more species compared to other non-r...
Recommendations<br />As establishment of new gov. forest reserves is expensive and prone to conflicts, need to enhance BD ...
Main sources<br />Leonard, C., Mwangoka, M., Mkongewa, V. and Doggart, N. 2010. Assessment of the biological values of dif...
Thank you for your attention!Merci beaucoup pour votre attention!<br />
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Village forest management as a way to protect biodiversity in Tanzania

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Heini Vihemäki (World Agroforestry Centre) and Charles Leonard (Tanzania Forest Conservation Group)

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education
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Village forest management as a way to protect biodiversity in Tanzania

  1. 1. Village Forest Management as a way to protect biodiversity in Tanzania<br />Heini Vihemäki (World AgroforestryCentre) and Charles Leonard (Tanzania Forest Conservation Group) <br />
  2. 2. Background<br />the forest area under the control of communities (villages, groups) has increased during the past 15-20 years in TZ<br />the knowledge on for forest quality in community managed areas inadequate<br />some indication on improved forest maintenance and quality (e.g. Blomley et al. 2008) <br />Most Village Forest Reserves (VFRs) established in areas not principally targeted for BD conservation<br />debate on whether community management ‘works’ for BD conservation goal<br />Few studies on their contribution to biodiversity conservation in Tz, e.g. Isango and Mhoro (2009)<br />
  3. 3. Questions<br />What is the BD value of VFRs in the East Usambaras, and how they compare with other land uses outside strictly protected forests?<br />BD addressed here as species level & the distribution of species (evenness)<br />Is the approach likely to be viable in terms of continuity of management ?<br />
  4. 4. Context: The East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania<br />Part of the Eastern Arcs<br />contain 6/19 Eastern Arc endemic and 13/26 near endemic bird species<br />40 EA endemic or near endemic tree species<br />Threats: fires, clearance of forest for agriculture, pit-sawing, harvesting of trees for building materials, mining<br />VFRs established since 1990s with external support, TFCG and others<br />Income generating activities<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Methods<br />botanical and bird survey covering a gradient from VFRs to agroforests and more open land uses in 3 village landscapes<br />Shannon index of all the plant species recorded in each plot/land use & no of tree sp/ha<br />Aggregated species diversity per different land uses (no of plant species)<br />Socio-economics: literature, observation<br />
  7. 7. Methods & materials<br />Bird surveys: Time Species Count (non-VFR) and mist netting (VFRs)<br />Vegetation survey plots:<br />
  8. 8. Results on plant sp diversity<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Results on Bird diversity<br />High diversity: in total, 89 bird species recorded in the three village landscapes, including threatened and EA endemics<br />The banded green sunbird was the only Eastern Arc endemic recorded<br />six Eastern-Arc near endemic species<br />all EA endemics/near endemics found in agforest, mosaic of agricultural lands, fallow or plantation. only two were also found in the VFRs<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Prospects of Continuity<br />Motivation and Attitudes of local people: Generally attitude positive, but high variation within and between villages inawareness and willingness to participate<br />Costs of establishment and support to management: high reliance on external funding and facilitation<br />Most benefits are ‘intangible’ so far, and direct benefits small (e.g. through Income generating activities)<br />Governance: depends on the village politics & groupings, challenges related to transparency<br />
  13. 13. Conclusions<br />VFRs can be conducive to BD conservation objectives, as they support more species compared to other non-reserved land uses<br />Higher diversity index and no of tree species<br />agroforestsand fallows also support several species, and especially rare birds<br />relatively small sizes of VFRs a constraint to conservation of certain species (e.g. Birds)<br />Less species comp. to strictly reserved forests<br />Continuity of management is at risk, e.g. due to dependency on external support in creation and incentives, small benefits so far<br />
  14. 14. Recommendations<br />As establishment of new gov. forest reserves is expensive and prone to conflicts, need to enhance BD conservation in VFR & village landscapes<br />creating value to the VFRs e.g. through PES one potential way to enhance their economic value and viability <br />Training on forest committee members and others on account keeping, to improve transparency of benefits<br />need to build capacity (e.g. facilitation of management planning) at different levels of the governance system, not only village<br />
  15. 15. Main sources<br />Leonard, C., Mwangoka, M., Mkongewa, V. and Doggart, N. 2010. Assessment of the biological values of different land cover types in the East Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. TFCG Technical Paper No. x.Dar es Salaam. Unpublished Draft.<br />Map. Produced for the LMP (?) by Jaclyn Hall, University of Florida.<br />Rantala, H., Lyimo, E., Powell, B., Kitalyi, A. & Vihemäki, H. 2009. Natural resource governance and stakeholders in the East Usambara Mountains. Working paper of the Landscape Mosaics Projects.Unpublished draft.<br />
  16. 16. Thank you for your attention!Merci beaucoup pour votre attention!<br />

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