The use of innovative learning approaches and tools to catalyze community-based conservation and monitoring


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What is needed for successful community-based conservation, and how can we achieve it? What are the keys to success in encouraging communities to participate in conservation? CIFOR scientist Linda Yuliani answers these questions, giving examples and lessons her team learned, in this presentation she gave on 8 December 2011 at the 25th international congress of the Society for Conservation Biology. The theme of the congress was ‘Engaging Society in Conservation’ and more than 1,300 scientists, practitioners and students of conservation biology from around the globe attended.

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The use of innovative learning approaches and tools to catalyze community-based conservation and monitoring

  1. 1. The use of innovative learning approaches and tools to catalyze community-based conservation and monitoring Elizabeth Linda Yuliani, Hasantoha Adnan Syahputra, Yayan IndriatmokoTHINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Community‐based conservationCommunity based conservation • Aimed to better  recognize local people’s  knowledge, interests,  roles and rights in natural  resources management • A As a respond to the  d t th failures of people‐ exclusion conservation exclusion conservation  and top‐down  management
  3. 3. For CBC to work For CBC to work • Socio‐ecological system: dynamics, complex,  multiscale • Mutual trust, sharing of management power and  responsibility (vs consultation and passive  p y p participation) • Learning, building social capital, creativity,  innovation, resilience, strengthening local  i i ili h i l l leadership and institutions • Equity and empowerment than monetary Equity and empowerment than monetary  incentives • Local and traditional ecological knowledge  co‐ management and empowermentBerkes, F. 2004. Rethinking Community‐Based Conservation. Conservation Biology  18(3):621‐630Pretty, J.N. and Smith, D. 2004. Social Capital in Biodiversity Conservation and  Management. Conservation Biology 18(3):631‐638
  4. 4. Complaints/challenges we often find • High dependency to the project • No continuation after the project No continuation after the project  ended • Key stakeholders lack of sense Key stakeholders lack of sense  belonging • No one knows where the  data/maps/agreements after the  project ended ildi i l i ld ’ l d • Building social capital doesn’t lead to  stakeholders behavior change • Incentives/PES ICDPs don’t work Incentives/PES, ICDPs don t work Loss of biodiversity, deforestation,  Loss of biodiversity deforestation overexploitation continue
  5. 5. WHY??? Our experience + observation +  p discussions + literature reviews: • Lack of knowledge on local social  context, e.g. paternalism,  complexities, unclear tenure • Not prioritize processes for trust Not prioritize processes for trust‐ building, sharing power and  responsibility, learning, self‐ mobilization and resilience • Predetermined objectives, no  flexibility fl ibilit • Bias towards  facilitator s/researcher s  facilitator’s/researcher’s knowledge and preference
  6. 6. WHY???... WHY???... (continued)• Community is too narrowly defined, seen as one interest group  does not lead  to well representation and equity• Stakeholders is too broadly defined: all groups/institutions who have interests vs groups that make decision and/or affected by any decisions made  dominated  by external actors, not community by external actors not community Local communities 6.98% 6 98% 13.95% Government 23.26% NGOs 34.88% 20.93% Universities/  Universities/ research institution Projects/programs
  7. 7. What is the most  Source of income  important thing  (fish, timber, honey,  from your  rattan etc.) rattan etc.) environment? Community priority: economic
  8. 8. Participatory  • Cultural valuevillage sketch • Social value • Food medicinal Food, medicinal  plants, water,  fish breeding  sites i • Environmental  value • Political value • How they manage How they manage • Roles,  responsibilities • Sharing knowledge  h k l d among members
  9. 9. The  ladder of The ‘ladder’ of  For successful CBC participation Self‐ mobilization bili i Building self- Interactive ea e confident, self- motivation Strengthening Functional local institutionsMost participatory Most participatoryapproaches and CBC  Objectives are pre-projects Bought determined by project Incentives, Consultative food etc. Interview, questionnaire, Passive consultation Types of participation adopted from: Types of participation adopted from: Familiarization f F ili i ti of new Pretty, J.N. 1995. Participatory learning for sustainable agriculture.  policy/program World Development 23:1247‐1263
  10. 10. But…B tHOW???
  11. 11. How to facilitate trust‐building, sharing power and How to facilitate trust‐building sharing power andresponsibility, learning, self‐mobilization and resilience? How to catalyze community’s initiatives  without creating dependency to external  facilitation and assistance, now and after  the project ends?  the project ends? Learning forum 2 days – 2 weeks ‐> what kind of  learning process that could lead to behavior change? l h ld l d b h h ?
  12. 12. Change the way we do and see thingsCh th d d thi• Appreciative Inquiry• Accelerated Learning Accelerated Learning
  13. 13. Appreciative Inquiry pp q y • Action research, 4D cycle (discover, dream, design, deliver) dream design deliver) • Primarily developed in the 1980s by David  L. Cooperrider and his colleagues at Case  oope de a d s co eagues a ase Western Reserve University for promoting  organizational change.   • Unlock people’s potentials and positive  forces, create positive vision/dream, lead  ii i to positive actionCooperrider, D. L., and S. Srivastva. 1987. Appreciative inquiry in organizational life.  Research in Organizational Change and Development 1:129‐169.Cooperrider, D. L., and D. Whitney. 2001. A positive revolution in change: appreciative  inquiry. Public Administration and Public Policy 87:611‐630. inquiry Public Administration and Public Policy 87:611 630Russell, D., and C. Harshbarger. 2003. Groundwork for community‐based conservation ‐ strategies for social research. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, California, USA.
  14. 14. Accelerated Learning Accelerated Learning • Based on latest research on brain  function • Physical activity, creativity, music,  images, color, and other methods  actively involving the whole person deeply involved in their own learning deeply involved in their own learning • Positive feelings, joyful, relaxed, and  engaging accelerate learning engaging accelerate learning.  • Negative feelings, stressful, painful,  and dreary inhibit learning and dreary inhibit learning  problem‐based approach rarely workMeier, D. 2000. The accelerated learning handbook: a creative guide to  designing and delivering faster, more effective training programs. McGraw‐Hill, New York, USA.
  15. 15. Accelerated Learning Accelerated Learning…  (continued) • The human nervous system: more of  an image processor than a word  processor • Different learning style: community  vs scientists and scholars • Learning processes: various tools to  accommodate different learning style • P l ld d h People would act towards the most  memorable experience and emotionsMeier, D. 2000. The accelerated learning handbook: a creative guide to  designing and delivering faster, more effective training programs. McGraw‐Hill, New York, USA.
  16. 16. How do we use AI  How do we use AI + AL?Vibrant facilitation • ConfidenceRelaxing atmosphere • Creative Inspiring conversation, Inspiring conversation ideas/strategies, not  ideas/strategies, notaffirmative topics BAU solutions • Generate individual Freedom to thinkF d hi k motivation Conventional  forms  of learning,  e.g. formal  g meetings,  Whining or  classroom complaining style
  17. 17. In capacity building/trainingevent• Discovery: build community’s self‐ confidence, e.g. draw a symbol that  represent one achievement they most  represent one achievement they most proud of, share with others• High paternalism: an important basis High paternalism: an important basis  for the next processes• Dream: in groups, draw what they  g p, y expect to have/see in their future life  and communities within 1‐3 years (in  terms of sustainable natural resources  management, reasonable timeframe) 
  18. 18. • Design: what will I (each  g ( participant) do to reach their  dream?• S lf Self‐contribution rather than  t ib ti th th pointing what other parties  should do• Deliver: identify how they  would deliver their personal  contribution to the society,  contribution to the society what they needed to learn to  support their plan, how they  would learn, and how they  would cope with challenges.• In all stages: the use of text is In all stages: the use of text is  kept to a minimum
  19. 19. Building trust, sharing power and responsibility• Start from ourselves, e.g. the way  Sta t o ou se es, e g t e ay we manage the project, inclusive  &  respectful communication,  openness• Facilitate each group separately• Capacity building and learning  processes that catalyze power  sharing and teamwork• Games/interactive tools to level the Games/interactive tools to level the  playing field and power
  20. 20. Examples from three case studies p• Community‐based wild orchid conservation• Reviving the indigenous knowledge and traditional systems for  community‐based Bornean orangutan protection• Microhydro
  21. 21. The location
  22. 22. The location• One of largest wetlands in Asia, > 132,000 ha• Important ecosystem functions (key hydrology regulator of Kapuas Important ecosystem functions (key hydrology regulator of Kapuas  watershed; high biodiversity; largest supplier of West Kalimantan fish;  largest deep peat deposit in the province)
  23. 23. • Local people income: US$11 18 million/yr  (traditional fishery + arowana breeding  Local people income: US$11‐18 million/yr (traditional fishery + arowana breeding farms + organic wild‐bee honey)• 43 villages : 5 Iban Dayak, 38 Malay (32 permanent, 6 seasonal) • Each ethnic group has different traditional tenure and natural resources  Each ethnic group has different traditional tenure and natural resources management
  24. 24. Local context• Strong government paternalism, treat communities as powerless  ‘victim’ mentality  high dependency to outsiders• All land surrounding the park are allocated for oil palm, threatening  biodiversity and local people’s livelihoods• Unclear tenure, overlapping claim over land• Government policies/decisions: strongly influenced by corporations  and political parties and political parties
  25. 25. Community‐based wild orchid conservationWe have  • Community  •Media coverageorchids too.  Forest patch full  protection,  •Visits by high Please train us. l with black‐orchid  h bl k hd declared as  declared as officials, tourists,  (Coelogyne Selimbau scientists pandurata) – Wild Orchid  protected by  Garden G d Indonesia law • In 8 months: Training on  •Pride, more  district’s orchids orchids motivation to  motivation to decree(taxonomy,  conserveecology, social) Forest full with  •Motivate and  • Develop Develop  endemic orchids train communities  customary law  in other villages What’s this  to protect the  (self‐mobilization)plant for?  l tf ? forest and the  forest and theOutsiders pay  treesus Rp. 100,000 (USD 12) to  Replicated, more collect these. forests conserved
  26. 26. Community‐based orangutan protection Awareness raising  Learn that ‘high’  Folkstories programs orangutan  population in  their village has Documentation  attracted many of traditional of traditional visitors/  s to s/land‐use  Communities  scientistssystems,  form voluntary  Traditional land‐ orangutan  ‘orangutancustomary  t •Community  use systems and  study group’rules,  monitoring customary rules:folkstories g •Rescuing  •integrated into integrated into  A series of  orangutan park zoning  training‐workshop  system and  and  district land‐use  district land use multistakeholder planning A work in  processes to foster  •used to  progress collaboration strengthen law  h l enforcement
  27. 27. Microhydro •Benefits  enjoyed by all  community • Shared  S a ed •Funding to  members e be s learning on  Self‐ buy turbine Self‐ •Better forest  microhydro organized  •Self‐ sufficient  protection• Existence of Existence of  proposal sufficient  electricity y Self‐ •Self‐ protected  development  mobilized  forest and  of small dam monitoring river Self‐organized  Self‐organized learning  across villages
  28. 28. Monitoring g Topic Monitoring on Objectives Who HowWild orchid  Orchid smugglers,  ild hid hd l Manage and d KWADS Direct forest district land‐use plan  protect wild  (Association of  observation and policies that may orchid forest, to Danau Sentarum , patrol on  affect the forest,  maintain village’s  Wild Orchid  rotating  seasonal flowering  ‘heritage’ Ecotourism) and/or  variation volunteer Orangutan Hunter, poacher,  Involved in  Orangutan study  basis trader, dietary plants  orangutan  group phenology, nesting  p gy, g protection p behavior, crop‐raiding Learn more  about orangutanMicrohydro River discharge water Maintenance of River discharge, water  Maintenance of  All village  All village quality, conditions of  micro‐hydro members, on  dam, turbines,  rotating basis electrical wiring electrical wiring
  29. 29. Results of AI + AL Results of AI + AL • Self confidence  self‐motivation Smugglers will be fined: Indonesian Rp. 2  gmillion, foreigner USD 2,000. self‐mobilization • Increased creativity and adaptive  strategies • Increased ability to cope with  shocks and complexities shocks and complexities • Develop strategies, looking for  information, do necessary actions information do necessary actions
  30. 30. What factors motivate people?What factors motivate people? • Realized that they have rich knowledge  and strong potentials to make changes  and strong potentials to make changes in their lives and help them move  forward  • The processes result in practical vision,  they knew how to achieve it and had  self confidence • Passion, strong motivation, opportunity to learn new knowledge • F li fid Feeling confident • Feeling of being a well appreciated and  trusted individual • Freedom to think
  31. 31. Lessons our team learnt Lessons our team learnt• CBC that focus on particular  species/genera/forest product/ecosystem  / /f d / service could lead to protection of large  extent of forest/landscape• Snowball/multiplying effect of self‐ mobilization: significant
  32. 32. Challenges g• Strong paternalism; government’s programs contradict to conservation  principles• Nurturing new knowledge, passion and positive spirit generated through the  AI approach, and make AI principles become a new thinking culture and  AI approach, and make AI principles become a new thinking culture and applied in daily behavior • Problem‐based approach ‐> weaken the positive thinking we build• Top‐down approach and break the trust• Rotation of government agencies we have been working with
  33. 33. Keys to success y• Facilitation skills• AI AL Asset‐based thinking AI, AL, Asset‐based thinking• Working with the right ‘agent of  change’ ‐> social change• Right key affirmative questions• External knowledge shared in the right  way, under the right context• Flexible, tactful and creative. Allow community s dream and planned action  community’s dream and planned action that beyond your project’s focus gy• Exit strategy embedded since the  beginning• Cultural sensitive
  34. 34. Thank you y