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THE STATE OF JURISDICTIONAL SUSTAINABILITY :
Synthesis for practitioners and policymakers
Mella Komalasari
New Step in Environmental Sustainability Through Low Carbon Development
(LCD): the path of LCD in Indonesia and its result
Chemistry Fair UI 2021
November 13, 2021
REDD+
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing
countries, plus the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and
enhancement of forest carbon stock.
• Reducing emissions from deforestation
• Reducing emissions from forest degradation
• Conservation of forest carbon stocks
• Sustainable management of forests
• Enhancement of forest carbon stocks
(UNFCCC 2011, FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1)
• ID-RECCO: International Database of REDD+ projects and programs, linking Economic, Carbon and
Communities data - https://www.reddprojectsdatabase.org/
1 project
2-4 projects
5-8-projects
9-15 projects
16-44 projects
REDD+
More than 300 REDD+ projects around the world (53 countries)
(Source: Simonet et al., 2018)
CIFOR’s Global Comparative Study (GCS) on
REDD+
www.cifor.org/gcs
https://data.cifor.org/dataverse/gcs
Comparison
(Control)
REDD+ site
(Intervention)
Before After
IMPACT
Intervention
After
Control
After
Intervention
Before
Control
Before
 Sampled 150 communities and
~4,000 households
 Combined measures of tree cover
change (Global Forest Change
2000-2014) and socio-economic
variables (collected through field
surveys in 2010, 2014 and 2018)
using BACI approach
Indonesia Commitments
To limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees
Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.
• NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution):
• Reducing emission 29% unconditional and 41% conditional in 2030
• UU no 16 Tahun 2016: Ratification of the Paris Agreement to the UNFCCC
• Integration of National Low Carbon Development Plan (PPRKN) into
the 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN).
• National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN-GRK) as
stipulated in Presidential Regulation No. 61 of 2011
Green Economy – Low Carbon Development
RAN-GRK as the forerunner
• Development pathway that could result in “improved human
wellbeing and social equity, while significantly reducing
environmental risks and ecological scarcities” (UNEP 2011)
• A green economy reform is typically orchestrated by national
government agencies, has multiple objectives (e.g., poverty
reduction, building climatic resilience, improving the economy), and
employs a mixture of command-and-control and market-based
instruments. Indonesia’s Low Carbon Development strategy (LCDI) is
one example (Bappenas 2019) (Noviyanza et al. 2021)
Intensitas Emisi =
𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸
𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 (source: Bappenas)
Emisi
Ekonomi
CIFOR and EII global survey in GCF
Task Force member jurisdictions
• Overview of jurisdictional low emissions rural
development (LED-R) strategies across the tropics –
subnational REDD+, sustainable land-use policies,
sustainable private sector initiatives to reduce
deforestation and forest degradation, and enhance
forest carbon stock
• Assess each jurisdiction’s potential for and progress in
designing and implementing LED-R strategies to
achieve the transition to jurisdictional sustainability –
Key challenges and opportunities
• Analyze relationship: subnational REDD+, sustainable
private sector initiatives and other LED-R related
policies and programs
• Provide guidance to GCF Task Force members on the
ways in which they can launch or strengthen their LED-
R strategies
Jurisdictions (39)
39
Jurisdictions
Tropical forest
28%
19 of 39
Reduction
relative to
FREL
38 of 39
Formal
commitments
6.8GtC02e
Avoided emissions
Key Statistics–Global Summary
69.2GtC
Total carbon stock
7 of 7
Considers above- & below-ground
biomass of forest areas
7
GCF member provinces (34
Indonesian provinces total)
Tropical forest
28%
4 of 7
Reduction
relative to
FREL
Formal
commitments
0.28GtC02e
Avoided emissions
Key Statistics–Indonesia Summary
7.2 GtC
Total carbon stock
3%
Sustainable Landscape Rating Tools
• Themes
• Land use planning and management
• Land and resource tenure
• Biodiversity and other ecosystem services
• Stakeholder coordination and participation
• Commodity production systems
• Institutional learning and development
• Formats
• Scorecard: summary of rating for each criterion
• A = high/full/clear; B = medium/partial; C = low/not
addressed; ID = Insufficient data
• Assessment: detailed evidence for rating with links to
supporting information strategies, laws, reports, data etc.
Example of
summary
scorecard
Key policies,
programs &
initiatives
Challenges &
opportunities
Summary
Example: Jurisdictional Profile
Spotlight on
innovation
Timeline
Commitments
Progress to
sustainability
Feeds into GCF Impact Platform
• Developed by Earth Innovation Institute
• Aim to allow jurisdictions to show progress; promote transparency;
connect investors and markets to jurisdictions
gcfimpact.org  https://forestchampions.org/
Synthesis: Central Questions
Has deforestation decreased in the study
jurisdictions?
1
Deforestation trends
346,000 km2
2000-2017
2001 2005 2010 2015 2017
Regional annual
deforestation
7 Indonesian
GCF provinces
1000
2000
3000
Km2
4000
58,800 km2
2001-2017
Source: yearly data published by the MoEF of Indonesia
http://webgis.menlhk.go.id:8080/pl/pl.htm
http://webgis.dephut.go.id:8080/kemenhut/index.php/en/feature/download
Decrease
2008-2017
Aceh
Central Kalimantan, North Kalimantan,
Papua
East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan,
West Papua
Stable
Increase
Annual deforestation 2001-2017 km²
Source: yearly data published by the MoEF of Indonesia.
Trends calculated using the 10-year period 2008-2017.
All observations refer to gross deforestation.
http://webgis.menlhk.go.id:8080/pl/pl.htm
http://webgis.dephut.go.id:8080/kemenhut/index.php/en/feature/download
What commitments have jurisdictions made toward
reducing deforestation/emissions (and other targets)?
2
Synthesis: Central Questions
Rio Branco
Declaration
Under2 MOU
Bonn
Challenge
New York
Declaration on
Forests
35 27 31 18
Deforestation
Livelihoods
Poverty Emissions
Reforestation
Restoration
Deforestation
Sustainable
agriculture
International commitments
Indonesia: 7
provinces (GCF
members)
Indonesia: 5 provinces
(4 from GCF)
Indonesia: 3 provinces (GCF
members) + national
endorsement
What progress have jurisdictions made toward
low-emission development?
3
Synthesis: Central Questions
Progress to jurisdictional sustainability
Summary of evaluations of Aceh, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, West Papua
2
1
3
6
2
3
2
2
6
4
5
3
4
3
4
4
Integrated LED-R Strategy
Spatial Plan
Performance Targets
MRV
Policies & Incentives
Multi-stakeholder governance
Sustainable agriculture
IP & LC
LED-R Finance
Early Intermediate
Data as of 2019
What external support/recognition
have jurisdictions received?
4
Synthesis: Central Questions
Finance & Partnerships
27 of the 39 jurisdictions have received (or are scheduled
to receive) approximately USD 2.3B
4 jurisdictions have received pay-for-performance funding
Partnerships: General agreements in 16 jurisdictions, but
only more concrete/contracted in 5
Climate finance: too low, too slow, too much like aid...
Readiness (11)
Pay-for-performance (4)
Contracted Partnership (11)
Declared Partnership (5)
The global disconnect:
471 corporate commitments
39 jurisdictional pledges
471 Companies
39
jurisdictions
5
… but only 5 formal partnerships
What is the way forward for jurisdictions?
5
Synthesis: Central Questions
Key Recommendations
• Develop broadly-shared definitions of success in addressing tropical
deforestation
• Enhance coordination (across levels and between sectors)
- Improve cooperation & alignment between levels of govt.
- Integrate development plans & spatial plans into LED-R strategy
with clear actions for achieving targets
- Ensure that spatial plans address zoning of activities that threaten
forests (e.g., infrastructure, mining) towards mitigating impacts &
facilitate achievement of targets
- Maintain multi-stakeholder forums to govern overall LED-R strategy
Key Recommendations
• Provide support for partnerships between government & indigenous
peoples/local communities
- Prioritize formal recognition of IP/LC rights
- Ensure IP/LC participation in multi-stakeholder forums
- Develop benefit-sharing mechanisms to ensure finance reaches IP/LC
• Foster company-government partnerships that are aligned with LED-R
strategy  made more commercially attractive by verifying already
achieved emissions reductions
- Strengthen regulations that facilitate sustainable practices
- Encourage companies to directly engage with national policy agendas
Key Recommendations
• Provide technical support to jurisdictions as needed
- Strengthen provincial MRV capacities
• Recognize efforts of aspiring jurisdictions in earlier stages of progress
(i.e., not only high performers) through purposeful investments
- Diversify sources of finance & improve allocation of financial
resources toward implementing/monitoring LED-R policies &
programs
- Support implementation of incentives for producers at
jurisdictional scales
www.earthinnovation.org/state-of-jurisdictional-sustainability
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for practitioners
and policymakers - CIFOR Knowledge
Terima Kasih!
cstickler@earthinnovation.org
a.duchelle@cgiar.org
jardila@earthinnovation.org
m.Komalasari@cgiar.org
SUPPORTED BY
https://earthinnovation.org/state-of-jurisdictional-sustainability/
The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for practitioners and
policymakers - CIFOR Knowledge

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The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for Practitioners and Policymakers

  • 1. THE STATE OF JURISDICTIONAL SUSTAINABILITY : Synthesis for practitioners and policymakers Mella Komalasari New Step in Environmental Sustainability Through Low Carbon Development (LCD): the path of LCD in Indonesia and its result Chemistry Fair UI 2021 November 13, 2021
  • 2. REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries, plus the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stock. • Reducing emissions from deforestation • Reducing emissions from forest degradation • Conservation of forest carbon stocks • Sustainable management of forests • Enhancement of forest carbon stocks (UNFCCC 2011, FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1)
  • 3. • ID-RECCO: International Database of REDD+ projects and programs, linking Economic, Carbon and Communities data - https://www.reddprojectsdatabase.org/ 1 project 2-4 projects 5-8-projects 9-15 projects 16-44 projects REDD+ More than 300 REDD+ projects around the world (53 countries) (Source: Simonet et al., 2018)
  • 4. CIFOR’s Global Comparative Study (GCS) on REDD+ www.cifor.org/gcs https://data.cifor.org/dataverse/gcs Comparison (Control) REDD+ site (Intervention) Before After IMPACT Intervention After Control After Intervention Before Control Before  Sampled 150 communities and ~4,000 households  Combined measures of tree cover change (Global Forest Change 2000-2014) and socio-economic variables (collected through field surveys in 2010, 2014 and 2018) using BACI approach
  • 5. Indonesia Commitments To limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. • NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution): • Reducing emission 29% unconditional and 41% conditional in 2030 • UU no 16 Tahun 2016: Ratification of the Paris Agreement to the UNFCCC • Integration of National Low Carbon Development Plan (PPRKN) into the 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN). • National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN-GRK) as stipulated in Presidential Regulation No. 61 of 2011
  • 6. Green Economy – Low Carbon Development RAN-GRK as the forerunner • Development pathway that could result in “improved human wellbeing and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities” (UNEP 2011) • A green economy reform is typically orchestrated by national government agencies, has multiple objectives (e.g., poverty reduction, building climatic resilience, improving the economy), and employs a mixture of command-and-control and market-based instruments. Indonesia’s Low Carbon Development strategy (LCDI) is one example (Bappenas 2019) (Noviyanza et al. 2021) Intensitas Emisi = 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 (source: Bappenas) Emisi Ekonomi
  • 7. CIFOR and EII global survey in GCF Task Force member jurisdictions • Overview of jurisdictional low emissions rural development (LED-R) strategies across the tropics – subnational REDD+, sustainable land-use policies, sustainable private sector initiatives to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, and enhance forest carbon stock • Assess each jurisdiction’s potential for and progress in designing and implementing LED-R strategies to achieve the transition to jurisdictional sustainability – Key challenges and opportunities • Analyze relationship: subnational REDD+, sustainable private sector initiatives and other LED-R related policies and programs • Provide guidance to GCF Task Force members on the ways in which they can launch or strengthen their LED- R strategies
  • 9. 39 Jurisdictions Tropical forest 28% 19 of 39 Reduction relative to FREL 38 of 39 Formal commitments 6.8GtC02e Avoided emissions Key Statistics–Global Summary 69.2GtC Total carbon stock
  • 10. 7 of 7 Considers above- & below-ground biomass of forest areas 7 GCF member provinces (34 Indonesian provinces total) Tropical forest 28% 4 of 7 Reduction relative to FREL Formal commitments 0.28GtC02e Avoided emissions Key Statistics–Indonesia Summary 7.2 GtC Total carbon stock 3%
  • 11. Sustainable Landscape Rating Tools • Themes • Land use planning and management • Land and resource tenure • Biodiversity and other ecosystem services • Stakeholder coordination and participation • Commodity production systems • Institutional learning and development • Formats • Scorecard: summary of rating for each criterion • A = high/full/clear; B = medium/partial; C = low/not addressed; ID = Insufficient data • Assessment: detailed evidence for rating with links to supporting information strategies, laws, reports, data etc.
  • 13. Key policies, programs & initiatives Challenges & opportunities Summary Example: Jurisdictional Profile Spotlight on innovation Timeline Commitments Progress to sustainability
  • 14. Feeds into GCF Impact Platform • Developed by Earth Innovation Institute • Aim to allow jurisdictions to show progress; promote transparency; connect investors and markets to jurisdictions gcfimpact.org  https://forestchampions.org/
  • 15. Synthesis: Central Questions Has deforestation decreased in the study jurisdictions? 1
  • 16. Deforestation trends 346,000 km2 2000-2017 2001 2005 2010 2015 2017 Regional annual deforestation 7 Indonesian GCF provinces 1000 2000 3000 Km2 4000 58,800 km2 2001-2017 Source: yearly data published by the MoEF of Indonesia http://webgis.menlhk.go.id:8080/pl/pl.htm http://webgis.dephut.go.id:8080/kemenhut/index.php/en/feature/download
  • 17. Decrease 2008-2017 Aceh Central Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, Papua East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, West Papua Stable Increase Annual deforestation 2001-2017 km² Source: yearly data published by the MoEF of Indonesia. Trends calculated using the 10-year period 2008-2017. All observations refer to gross deforestation. http://webgis.menlhk.go.id:8080/pl/pl.htm http://webgis.dephut.go.id:8080/kemenhut/index.php/en/feature/download
  • 18. What commitments have jurisdictions made toward reducing deforestation/emissions (and other targets)? 2 Synthesis: Central Questions
  • 19. Rio Branco Declaration Under2 MOU Bonn Challenge New York Declaration on Forests 35 27 31 18 Deforestation Livelihoods Poverty Emissions Reforestation Restoration Deforestation Sustainable agriculture International commitments Indonesia: 7 provinces (GCF members) Indonesia: 5 provinces (4 from GCF) Indonesia: 3 provinces (GCF members) + national endorsement
  • 20. What progress have jurisdictions made toward low-emission development? 3 Synthesis: Central Questions
  • 21. Progress to jurisdictional sustainability Summary of evaluations of Aceh, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, West Papua 2 1 3 6 2 3 2 2 6 4 5 3 4 3 4 4 Integrated LED-R Strategy Spatial Plan Performance Targets MRV Policies & Incentives Multi-stakeholder governance Sustainable agriculture IP & LC LED-R Finance Early Intermediate Data as of 2019
  • 22. What external support/recognition have jurisdictions received? 4 Synthesis: Central Questions
  • 23. Finance & Partnerships 27 of the 39 jurisdictions have received (or are scheduled to receive) approximately USD 2.3B 4 jurisdictions have received pay-for-performance funding Partnerships: General agreements in 16 jurisdictions, but only more concrete/contracted in 5 Climate finance: too low, too slow, too much like aid... Readiness (11) Pay-for-performance (4) Contracted Partnership (11) Declared Partnership (5)
  • 24. The global disconnect: 471 corporate commitments 39 jurisdictional pledges 471 Companies 39 jurisdictions 5 … but only 5 formal partnerships
  • 25. What is the way forward for jurisdictions? 5 Synthesis: Central Questions
  • 26. Key Recommendations • Develop broadly-shared definitions of success in addressing tropical deforestation • Enhance coordination (across levels and between sectors) - Improve cooperation & alignment between levels of govt. - Integrate development plans & spatial plans into LED-R strategy with clear actions for achieving targets - Ensure that spatial plans address zoning of activities that threaten forests (e.g., infrastructure, mining) towards mitigating impacts & facilitate achievement of targets - Maintain multi-stakeholder forums to govern overall LED-R strategy
  • 27. Key Recommendations • Provide support for partnerships between government & indigenous peoples/local communities - Prioritize formal recognition of IP/LC rights - Ensure IP/LC participation in multi-stakeholder forums - Develop benefit-sharing mechanisms to ensure finance reaches IP/LC • Foster company-government partnerships that are aligned with LED-R strategy  made more commercially attractive by verifying already achieved emissions reductions - Strengthen regulations that facilitate sustainable practices - Encourage companies to directly engage with national policy agendas
  • 28. Key Recommendations • Provide technical support to jurisdictions as needed - Strengthen provincial MRV capacities • Recognize efforts of aspiring jurisdictions in earlier stages of progress (i.e., not only high performers) through purposeful investments - Diversify sources of finance & improve allocation of financial resources toward implementing/monitoring LED-R policies & programs - Support implementation of incentives for producers at jurisdictional scales
  • 29. www.earthinnovation.org/state-of-jurisdictional-sustainability The State of Jurisdictional Sustainability: Synthesis for practitioners and policymakers - CIFOR Knowledge