Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
THINKING beyond the canopy
The Political Economy of Fire and Haze:
Root Causes
Herry Purnomo and Bayuni Shantiko
Discussio...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Indonesia’s Fire and Haze
 2.6 million ha of land burnt and more than $30 billions of economic...
THINKING beyond the canopy
The first victim
 Hanum (12 years)
 A student in 6th grade in Pekanbaru, Riau
 Died on 19 Se...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Root Causes
 Tenure and illegal land market
• Unclear land tenure and in-secure concession are...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Facts
LAPAN,
November
2nd 2015
Area Peat (ha) Non-peat (ha) Total %
Sumatra 267,974
565,02
5
83...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Land uses Vs. Hotspots
Land uses
Extent Hotspots
Ha % Number %
Corporation
managed land (34%
of...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Who gets what?
Village head & officers
$88 (13%)
Land claimant
$29 (4%)
Group members, tree cut...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Fire provides benefits
to some people
Village head & officers $88
(10%)
Land claimant,
$38 (4%)...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Village head &
officers $88 (3%)
Land claimant,
$38 (1%)
Group members, tree cutting
$77 (3%)
G...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Fire Density (hotspots/million ha)
Loggingcon
Woodplant
OilpalminA
Oilpalminf
Overlapped
Commun...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Palm Oil – mostly in individual company areas
(12% of land and 16% of hotspots)
No Category Cou...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Wood and industrial plantations – mostly in large group areas (12 % of
land and 23% of hotspots...
THINKING beyond the canopy
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
010,00020,00030...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Model
Log Yt = 0.937 log Yt-2 + 0.0219 Xt+1
  
 Hotspots in year-t (Yt) is a function of hotsp...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Social network analysis: Local elites/cukong who organize 
farmers are the most influential act...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Corporate actors connected to elites at various levels
BMH, RPP, RPS
(South Sumatra), LIH
(Riau...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Project action points
 Fire and Haze Expert Meeting
 Conducting National Policy
Dialogue
 Co...
THINKING beyond the canopy
Questions
1. How can land tenure and spatial planning be facilitated
and strengthened?
2. How c...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The political economy of fire and haze root causes

440 views

Published on

Presentation by Herry Purnomo and Bayuni Shantiko at “Engaging the private sector in long-term solutions to end Indonesia’s forest fires and haze” Discussion Forum on the second day of the Global Landscapes Forum 2015, in Paris, France alongside COP21. For more information go to: www.landscapes.org.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The political economy of fire and haze root causes

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopy The Political Economy of Fire and Haze: Root Causes Herry Purnomo and Bayuni Shantiko Discussion Forum: Long-Term Solutions to Fires in Indonesia: Multi- Stakeholder Efforts and The Role of the Private Sector Global Landscapes Forum, Paris, 5-6 December, 2015
  2. 2. THINKING beyond the canopy Indonesia’s Fire and Haze  2.6 million ha of land burnt and more than $30 billions of economic losses  43 million people exposed to haze  ½ million victims of acute respiratory infections  19 people reported dead
  3. 3. THINKING beyond the canopy The first victim  Hanum (12 years)  A student in 6th grade in Pekanbaru, Riau  Died on 19 September 2015 http://regional.kompas.com/read/2015/09/11/22320341/Sulit.Bernapas.akibat.Kabut.Asap.Bocah.SD.di.Riau.Meninggal.Dunia
  4. 4. THINKING beyond the canopy Root Causes  Tenure and illegal land market • Unclear land tenure and in-secure concession areas • Illegal land transactions • Conflicts: Community vs. state vs. corporate  Bad practices of agricultural and plantation development • Corporate/contractors/workers • Communities  Land politics • Patronage network between business and government • Land politics for local elections
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopy Facts LAPAN, November 2nd 2015 Area Peat (ha) Non-peat (ha) Total % Sumatra 267,974 565,02 5 832,999 40% Kalimantan 319,386 487,43 1 806,817 39% Papua 31,214 321,97 7 353,191 17% Sulawesi 30,912 30,912 1% Bali and Nusra 30,162 30,162 1% Jawa 18,768 18,768 1% Maluku 17,063 17,063 1% 618,574 1,471,338 2,089,912 100% 30% 70%
  6. 6. THINKING beyond the canopy Land uses Vs. Hotspots Land uses Extent Hotspots Ha % Number % Corporation managed land (34% of land uses; 45% hotspots) Logging concession 12,501,285 12 545 4 Wood plantation 8,443,633 8 3,297 23 Oil palm plantation Other land uses (APL) 8,951,386 9 1,589 11 Forest area 2,791,974 3 750 5 Overlapped 2,374,943 2 260 2 Private, community and government managed land (66% land uses and 55% hotspots) APL (community, private and state lands) 29,876,742 29 4,963 21 Forest area (Protected and conservation areas) 36,851,699 36 3,057 34 Total 101,791,661 100 14,459 100 Data sources: NASA, WRI, Ministry of Environment and Forestry Indonesia
  7. 7. THINKING beyond the canopy Who gets what? Village head & officers $88 (13%) Land claimant $29 (4%) Group members, tree cutting $77(12%) Group members, slashing $96 (14%) Marketing team $38 (6%) Total Benefit Slash & cut $665/ha The group organizer $338 (51%) Unsecured tenure: Illegal land market in various land uses
  8. 8. THINKING beyond the canopy Fire provides benefits to some people Village head & officers $88 (10%) Land claimant, $38 (4%) Group members, tree cutting $77 (9%) Group members, slashing $96 (11%) Marketing team, $54 (6%) Total Benefit $856/ha The group organizer $486 (57%) Farmer group member, burning $15 (2%) Farmer group member, cheap/free land $2 (0.2%)
  9. 9. THINKING beyond the canopy Village head & officers $88 (3%) Land claimant, $38 (1%) Group members, tree cutting $77 (3%) Group members, slashing $96 (3%) Marketing team, $54 (2%) Total Benefit $3,077/ha The group organizer $1567 (51%) Group members, burning $15 (1%) Group members, cheap/free land $2 (0.1%) Oil Palm development $992 (32%) Group members, oil palm growing wage $147 (5%) Three-year oil palm
  10. 10. THINKING beyond the canopy Fire Density (hotspots/million ha) Loggingcon Woodplant OilpalminA Oilpalminf Overlapped Community Protectiona 050100150200250300350400450500
  11. 11. THINKING beyond the canopy Palm Oil – mostly in individual company areas (12% of land and 16% of hotspots) No Category Country 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Avg. % 1 Individual companies - 283 1,435 1,413 1,094 3,330 3,023 1,763 68% 2 POG1 INA 27 35 56 316 132 61 105 4% 3 POG2 INA 15 42 104 113 297 29 100 4% 4 POG3 Sing 29 99 36 76 188 128 93 4% 5 POG4 Sing 9 34 41 36 144 195 77 3% 6 POG5 Sing 0 9 6 0 27 169 35 1% 7 POG6 INA 36 92 28 27 38 70 49 2% 8 POG7 INA 0 0 0 11 53 49 19 1% 9 POG8 Mal 2 15 47 10 18 46 23 1% 10 71 other groups - 68 210 279 339 484 564 324 13% Total 469 1,971 2,010 2,022 4,711 4,334 2,586 100%
  12. 12. THINKING beyond the canopy Wood and industrial plantations – mostly in large group areas (12 % of land and 23% of hotspots) No Category Country 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Avg. % 1 WPG1 Sing 140 829 1,108 973 4,507 5,479 2,173 63% 2 Individual companies - 35 263 519 366 545 803 422 12% 3 WPG1 Sing 97 226 216 550 1,117 241 408 12% 4 WPG2 INA 3 41 103 113 79 101 73 2% 5 WPG3 INA - 28 1 - 35 179 41 1% 6 WPG4 Sing 8 34 51 100 91 19 51 1% 7 WPG5 Sing - 9 6 15 51 80 27 1% 8 WPG6 INA - 7 25 15 33 58 23 1% 9 WPG7 INA 1 28 18 12 34 50 24 1% 10 46 other WPGs - 80 154 215 116 244 413 204 6% 364 1,619 2,262 2,260 6,736 7,423 3,444 100%
  13. 13. THINKING beyond the canopy 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 010,00020,00030,00040,000 020406080100120 Fire spots District election National election Hotspots and District Elections
  14. 14. THINKING beyond the canopy Model Log Yt = 0.937 log Yt-2 + 0.0219 Xt+1     Hotspots in year-t (Yt) is a function of hotspots in  Yt-2 and local election next year (Xt+1) with  average error 9%    Riau migrants:  Land for Votes    
  15. 15. THINKING beyond the canopy Social network analysis: Local elites/cukong who organize  farmers are the most influential actors in land transaction. Patronage Network – Illegal Institution http://reportaseriau.com/read-3954--terdakwa-ashari- mantan-kadestolak-dakwaan-jpu.html
  16. 16. THINKING beyond the canopy Corporate actors connected to elites at various levels BMH, RPP, RPS (South Sumatra), LIH (Riau) GAP, NBA, and ASP (Central Kalimantan) http://news.liputan6.com/read/2321284/11-perusahaan-jadi- tersangka-pembakaran-hutan-dan-lahan
  17. 17. THINKING beyond the canopy Project action points  Fire and Haze Expert Meeting  Conducting National Policy Dialogue  Communicating to local, national and international mass media  Presenting/hearing with parliament, NGOs and governments.  Facilitating Dompas Village, Riau  Establishing Riau-based Forum Negeri Bebas Jerebu
  18. 18. THINKING beyond the canopy Questions 1. How can land tenure and spatial planning be facilitated and strengthened? 2. How can rent seeking behavior through ‘illegal institutions’ e.g. bribery and patronage be reduced? New regulations? 3. How can the poor (not the elites) have access to land to grow oil palm sustainably? 4. How can corporate actors clear their supply chains from fires and minimize internal ‘rent seekers’? 5. How can non-haze related local leaders be elected on Dec 9th?

×