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The new agrarian change?

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A presentation by Liz Deakin at ATBC on the 14th July 2015.

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The new agrarian change?

  1. 1. Liz Deakin, Mrigesh Kshtryia, Frédéric Baudron, Terry Sunderland Association for Tropical Biology Conference – Honolulu, 14th July 2015 The New Agrarian Change? Exploring the dynamic interplay between forest conservation, food security and commodity production in tropical forest landscapes
  2. 2. Photo credits: CIFOR Agrarian change in tropical forest landscapes
  3. 3. Natural vegetation ‘Secondary’ vegetation Agricultural land Agrarian change in tropical landscapes Agricultural modification Treecover Photo credits: CIFOR
  4. 4. Land sharing Photo credits: CIFOR Agrarian change in tropical landscapes Treecover Natural vegetation ‘Secondary’ vegetation Agricultural land Land sparing
  5. 5. Land sparing & land sharing Vs. Food productionBiodiversity conservation Photo credits: CIFOR • Many opinions, responses and discussion on the land sharing / land sparing debate (e.g. Green et al. 2005, Fischer et al. 2011, Ziegler et al. 2011, Phalan et al. 2011, 2014, Clough et al. 2011, Ewers 2009, Baudron et al. 2014, Perfecto & Vandermeer 2010 and others) • Full complexities of multi-functional landscapes not considered by only looking at trade offs between biodiversity conservation and agricultural yields
  6. 6. Land sparing & land sharing: moving forward Agriculture – Biodiversity Nexus • Land use strategies aimed at balancing agriculture and biodiversity conservation must also consider socio-economic constraints and trade- offs, as well as trade offs with biodiversity conservation (Grau et al. 2013, Fischer et al. 2014, Lee et al. 2014) • More food production does not automatically lead to better food security and better livelihoods for rural communities ? Photo credits: CIFOR
  7. 7. Addressing the agriculture-biodiversity nexus Food security Ecosystem services Nutrition Sustainable livelihoods Access to markets Poverty alleviation Wild food & products Project Aim: Advance our understanding of agricultural landscapes as socio-ecological systems ? Photo credits: CIFOR
  8. 8. Food security Ecosystem services Nutrition Sustainable livelihoods Access to markets Poverty alleviation Wild food & products What effect does agrarian change have on social AND ecological responses in tropical forest landscapes? Underlying drivers behind land use change? Community perceptions of land use change? Project Aim: Advance our understanding of agricultural landscapes as socio-ecological systems ? Photo credits: CIFOR Addressing the agriculture-biodiversity nexus
  9. 9. Study Sites
  10. 10. FOREST (CONTROL) ZONE 1 ZONE 3ZONE 2 Agricultural modification (simplification and intensification of commodities) Treecover Experimental Design A landscape-level approach, with a nested 3-level hierarchical design: 1. A landscape exhibiting changing land use practices and agrarian change 2. Three land use ‘zones’ in each landscape, a gradient of agricultural modification 3. Villages or settlements within each zone 1 2 3
  11. 11. Photo credits: CIFOR Experimental Design FOREST (CONTROL) ZONE 1 ZONE 3ZONE 2 Agricultural modification (simplification and intensification of commodities) Treecover Subsistence farming, high dependency on forest products A landscape-level approach, with a nested 3-level hierarchical design: 1. A landscape exhibiting changing land use practices and agrarian change 2. Three land use ‘zones’ in each landscape, a gradient of agricultural modification 3. Villages or settlements within each zone 1 2 3
  12. 12. Photo credits: CIFOR Experimental Design FOREST (CONTROL) ZONE 1 ZONE 3ZONE 2 Agricultural modification (simplification and intensification of commodities) Treecover E.g. Subsistence farming, high dependency on forest resources E.g. Rubber agroforestry system Subsistence farming, high dependency on forest products Extensive coffee agroforesty A landscape-level approach, with a nested 3-level hierarchical design: 1. A landscape exhibiting changing land use practices and agrarian change 2. Three land use ‘zones’ in each landscape, a gradient of agricultural modification 3. Villages or settlements within each zone 1 2 3
  13. 13. A landscape-level approach, with a nested 3-level hierarchical design: 1. A landscape exhibiting changing land use practices and agrarian change 2. Three land use ‘zones’ in each landscape, a gradient of agricultural modification 3. Villages or settlements within each zone Experimental Design FOREST (CONTROL) ZONE 1 ZONE 3ZONE 2 Agricultural modification (simplification and intensification of commodities) Treecover E.g. Subsistence farming, high dependency on forest resources E.g. Rubber agroforestry system E.g. Oil palm monoculture Subsistence farming, high dependency on forest products Extensive coffee agroforesty Intensive oil palm monoculture 1 2 3
  14. 14. Field Methods In each zone the following methods were used: Household Surveys Focus Group Discussions Key Informant Interviews Farm Productivity Surveys Biodiversity Surveys Yield measurements Farm inputs (e.g. fertilizer, labour) Production targets Resource flow mapping Wealth ranking Food / cash calendars Nutrition assessments Ecosystem service mapping Community perceptions Tree plots Bird point counts Invertebrate trapping METHODS BiodiversityRelative poverty Nutrition Food securityEcosystem services Livelihoods Agricultural production RESPONSES
  15. 15. Study site: Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan, Indonesia Primary forest Rubber agroforestry Oil palm plantation Oil palm concession
  16. 16. Study site: Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan, Indonesia Primary forest Rubber agroforestry Oil palm plantation Oil palm concession
  17. 17. Study site: Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan, Indonesia Primary forest Rubber agroforestry Oil palm plantation Oil palm concession
  18. 18. Study site: Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan, Indonesia Primary forest Rubber agroforestry Oil palm plantation Oil palm concession
  19. 19. Study site: Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan, Indonesia Primary forest Rubber agroforestry Oil palm plantation Oil palm concession Photo credits: Dominic Rowland
  20. 20. Food security Ecosystem services Nutrition Sustainable livelihoods Access to markets Poverty alleviation Wild food & products • A LOT OF DATA ANALYSIS! • Provide empirical evidence to examine socio-economic trade offs within land sparing / sharing debate • Advance our understanding of agricultural landscapes as socio- ecological systems • There is much more to food security than increasing agricultural production….. ? Photo credits: CIFOR Next steps….
  21. 21. Acknowledgements Co-investigators: Mrigesh Kshtryia (CIFOR) Terry Sunderland (CIFOR) Frédéric Baudron (CIMMYT) Collaborators, PhD and Masters students: Sarah Gergel & Ian Eddy (University of British Columbia) Unai Pasquel & Ignacio Polomo (BC3) Samson Foli (University of Amsterdam) Abdoulaye Rabdo (CIFOR Burkina Faso) Ronju Ahammad (Charles Darwin University) Dominic Rowland (London School of Tropical Hygiene & Medicine) Rio Leonald (Bogor Agricultural University) Stella Asaha (Pan African Institute for Development) Kondwani Yobe Mumba & Davison Gumbo (CIFOR Zambia) Jean-Yves Duriaux (CIMMYT Ethiopia) Funding: DfID, UK USAID Halimun Salak National Park landscape, Indonesia Photo credit: CIFOR
  22. 22. Thank you l.deakin@cigar.org Photo credit: CIFOR

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