The influence of ‘sago-based vegeculture’ on forest  landscapes in central Seram, eastern Indonesia        The 10th Intern...
Background (1)Sago-based Vegeculture (Vegetatively Propagated Crop Agriculture)   Mediterranean Basic Agricultural Complex...
Background (2) Indigenous agriculture in Maluku, east Indonesia   Sago-based vegeculture         sago cultivation        ...
Objectives to evaluate the impact of  ‘sago-based vegeculture’  on the local forest  landscape by analysing 1) the  land ...
Methods: Research Site                          Amani oho                 • Population:±320 (±60                   househo...
Methods: Data Collection Interviews (key informant , one-on-one  and group interviews) and participatory  observation of ...
Results1. Overview of sago-based vegeculture2. Relatively high land productivity of sago groves3. Small-scale of shifting ...
1. Outlook of sago-based vegeculture(1):           Sago Palm Cultivation                             Characteristics as a ...
1. Outlook of sago-based vegeculture(2):                                Shifting Cultivation         Types             Lan...
2. Relatively high land productivity of sago groves (1):    Estimation of annual number of harvestable sago stands per ha ...
2. Relatively high land productivity of sago groves (1):Estimation of the annual amount of harvestable sago starch per ha ...
3. Small-scale of shifting cultivation (1):        The size of shifting cultivation gardens per household        Types    ...
3. Small-scaleness of shifting cultivation (2):      A contributing factor to the small-scaleness – high dependency of sag...
DiscussionRelationship between Sago-based vegeculture and forest
Conclusions ‘Sago-based vegeculture’ exerts relatively little  pressure on the forest, and may contribute, to  some exten...
Thank you
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The influence of ‘sago-based vegeculture’ on forest landscapes in central Seram, eastern Indonesia

1,578 views

Published on

Rural farmers in Maluku, eastern Indonesia, depend on sago starch extracted from sago palm as a staple food. They also practice shifting cultivation, growing vegetatively propagated crops such as taro, sweet potato and banana as supplementary foods. What impact does this sago-based vegeculture have on the forest landscape? This presentation, given by CIFOR scientist Masatoshi Sasaoka at the 10th International Sago Symposium held in Bogor, Indonesia on 29-31 October, shows results from a study evaluating that impact. Findings indicate that ‘sago-based vegeculture’ exerts relatively little pressure on the forest, and may contribute, to some extent, to forming and maintaining natural forest-dominated landscapes in central Seram. Such forest-friendly agriculture also appears to contribute to the relatively high local biodiversity and carbon stock.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,578
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The influence of ‘sago-based vegeculture’ on forest landscapes in central Seram, eastern Indonesia

  1. 1. The influence of ‘sago-based vegeculture’ on forest landscapes in central Seram, eastern Indonesia The 10th International Sago Symposium, 29-30 October 2011 Masatoshi Sasaoka (CIFOR) and Yves Laumonier (CIRAD-B&SEF)
  2. 2. Background (1)Sago-based Vegeculture (Vegetatively Propagated Crop Agriculture) Mediterranean Basic Agricultural ComplexAreas where local people Vegeculture Basic Agricultural Complexare dependent on sago New world Basic Agricultural Complex Savannah Basic Agricultural Complex Main crops: Vegetatively Propagated Crops (VPCs) such as taro, yam, banana, etc Four Types of Basic Agricultural Complexes [Nakao 1966]
  3. 3. Background (2) Indigenous agriculture in Maluku, east Indonesia Sago-based vegeculture sago cultivation shifting cultivation of VPCs (banana, taro, yam, sweet potato, cassava, etc.) Competitive relationship between agriculture and the forest Agricultural Forest land
  4. 4. Objectives to evaluate the impact of ‘sago-based vegeculture’ on the local forest landscape by analysing 1) the land productivity of sago groves and 2) the sizes of shifting cultivation fields to provide implications for future sago research
  5. 5. Methods: Research Site Amani oho • Population:±320 (±60 households) • Subsistence activities: sago- starch extraction, agriculture Research site (vegeculture), hunting/trapping, collection of other NTFPs • Main source of incomes: seasonal migrant work as harvester of clove, selling bush meat, parrot trade, etc. • Access: to North:2-3days on foot; to South: 1day on foot • Located in the interior of central Seram nearby National Park
  6. 6. Methods: Data Collection Interviews (key informant , one-on-one and group interviews) and participatory observation of agricultural activities Measurement surveys for amounts of sago starch produced and density of mature sago palm stands Measurement surveys for the sizes of cultivation fields Data used in this presentation was collected through my anthropological fieldwork that had been conducted intermittently from 2003-2007
  7. 7. Results1. Overview of sago-based vegeculture2. Relatively high land productivity of sago groves3. Small-scale of shifting cultivation
  8. 8. 1. Outlook of sago-based vegeculture(1): Sago Palm Cultivation Characteristics as a crop Harvestable Age 8-15 (yr) Swampy ground, area Distribution along small rivers Resistant to pests, diseases & wild Very high animal damage Shifting/ Able to be harvested continuous continuously in the cultivation same place Source: Field research.
  9. 9. 1. Outlook of sago-based vegeculture(2): Shifting Cultivation Types Land preparation & Main crops Burning managementIntensive root After clearance of Root crops (taro, Occasioncrop - vegetable secondary vegetation, cassava, sweet potato al (onlygarden (lela) removing litter etc.) and vegetables, in the dry (branches and leaves). tobacco, sugar cane, season) Frequent weeding. etc.Extensive banana Not removing litter, Banana , taro, fruit No- taro garden seldom weeding. trees ( langsat,(lawa) jackfruit etc.)Source: Field research.
  10. 10. 2. Relatively high land productivity of sago groves (1): Estimation of annual number of harvestable sago stands per ha Folk categories for  The density of sago palm stands Sago palm growth stages Anania Sucker during the upepoto and raplili Waieri Palm beginning to form trunk growth stages (A): 76.3 stands/ha Sapei Palm with woody trunk, but (n=15, total 1.9ha) tupe still short Palm with relatively tall trunk ,  The time period needed for sago Upepoto leaves around the crown don’t palm to grow from the early yet begin to be small upepoto stage to ropu ropu (B):4- Palm with relatively tall trunk Rapulili and small leaves around the 6 years crown Matured palm with a peduncle,  The estimated annual number ofRopu ropu suitable for harvesting harvestable sago stands per ha Palm, peduncle of which has (C=A/B): 12.7-19.1 stand /ha/yr Atamoto already fallenSource: Field research.
  11. 11. 2. Relatively high land productivity of sago groves (1):Estimation of the annual amount of harvestable sago starch per ha  The amount of sago starch per stand (dry weight) (D) : 68kg/stand (n=41)  The amount of annually produced sago starch (dry weight) (C*D) : 864-1299 kg/ha/yr  Land productivity of sago groves [kcal] : 347 -522 *104 kcal/ha/yr (assuming that the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of sago is 1 : 0.55, and the amount of energy contained within wet sago is 2210 kcal [Ohtsuka and Suzuki 1990])  5 to 16 times those for ‘actual land productivity’ *) of upland rice fields in Southeast Asia (32-64*104 kcal / ha /yr, estimated based on: • assumed upland rice yield of 1 - 2 t/ha/yr[Sasaki 1998] • a cultivation period of 2 years • a fallow period of 20 years *) Land productivity calculated taking fallow land and period into account
  12. 12. 3. Small-scale of shifting cultivation (1): The size of shifting cultivation gardens per household Types The number of The size of Total number of gardens cultivated on gardens on garden fields average average measured [field/household] [ha/ household]Intensive root 1.6 0.04 21crop - vegetablegarden (lela)Extensive 3.7 0.18 48banana - tarogarden (lawa)Total 0.22 69Source: Field research.Note: The measurement surveys were conducted in 2004 for all of shifting cultivation gardensbelonging to 13 households.  1/6 to 1/8 of the average size of shifting cultivation fields for upland rice in Southeast Asia(1.4-1.8 ha / household [Sasaki 1998])
  13. 13. 3. Small-scaleness of shifting cultivation (2): A contributing factor to the small-scaleness – high dependency of sago Staple food intake [energy] Frequency of staple food intakeSource: Field research. Source: Field research.Note 1: The data on staple food intakes was collected from 5 June to 30 Note 1: The frequency of food intake: [the number of timesAugust 2003. This measurement survey was conducted for breakfasts 19 that a food item was consumed] / [total number of meals overtimes (for 92 persons), lunch 17 times (92 persons), and supper 21 times the time period].(115 persons). Note 2: The data was collected using self-administeredNote 2: Calculations of energy were carried out based on the following questionnaires during 4 research periods: May to June 2003data: sago 2210 kcal/kg, sweet potato 770 kcal/kg, banana 1150 kcal/kg, (21 days, 19 households), July to August 2003 (21 days, 16taro 1300 kcal/kg, and cassava 1490 kcal/kg [Ohtsuka et al., 1990: 228] households), November to December 2003 (22 days, 17 households), February to March 2004 (18 days, 15 households).
  14. 14. DiscussionRelationship between Sago-based vegeculture and forest
  15. 15. Conclusions ‘Sago-based vegeculture’ exerts relatively little pressure on the forest, and may contribute, to some extent, to forming and maintaining natural forest-dominated landscapes in central Seram Such forest- friendly agriculture also appears to contribute to the relatively high local biodiversity and carbon stock Further studies are needed to assess the value of ‘sago-based vegeculture’ in terms of biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration
  16. 16. Thank you

×