Southeast Asia’s Biodiversity,
Post 2015:
What is at stake?

Terry Sunderland, Principal Scientist
Enhancing and Promoting...
Context
•  SE Asia: biodiversity “hot spots”
•  Yet has the highest relative rate of
deforestation in the tropics
•  Major...
Global biodiversity hot spots

THINKING beyond the canopy
THINKING beyond the canopy
people in 2002 [13,72]. In particular, Singapore has transformed itself
from a developing country of squatters and slums t...
Protected areas?

THINKING beyond the canopy
THINKING beyond the canopy
Drivers of change: logging

THINKING beyond the canopy
Drivers of change: agriculture

THINKING beyond the canopy
Oil palm expansion and forest loss

THINKING beyond the canopy
THINKING beyond the canopy
A green desert

THINKING beyond the canopy
Wildlife trade

THINKING beyond the canopy
Food security
•  Changing
demographics
•  Changing appetites
•  How to grow enough
nutritious food for
future populations
...
Segregation of land use is the norm
Plantation

Agriculture

Forest

THINKING beyond the canopy
Land sparing/sharing within
landscapes

THINKING beyond the canopy
Multi-functionality
•  Combination of separate
land units with different
functions (spatial
segregation)
•  Different func...
Landscape assessment for development
•  Collecting economic data at
various levels, engaging
most stakeholders
•  Spatial ...
THINKING beyond the canopy
The role of research
•  Biodiversity research in
SE Asia has lagged
behind rest of the tropics
•  Distribution of research...
How are we
doing?
The MDG’s
What hope
for the SDG’s
post-2015??

THINKING beyond the canopy
The environment: more than $$ alone!

THINKING beyond the canopy
The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
is one of the 15 centres supported by the Consultative
Group on Int...
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Southeast Asia’s Biodiversity, Post 2015: What is at stake?

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This presentation by Terry Sunderland from CIFOR focuses on the value of biodiversity in Southeast Asia, what role protected areas play, what the drivers of change are, wildlife trade, food security, the segregation of land use and how multi-functionality can be achieved.

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Southeast Asia’s Biodiversity, Post 2015: What is at stake?

  1. 1. Southeast Asia’s Biodiversity, Post 2015: What is at stake? Terry Sunderland, Principal Scientist Enhancing and Promoting the Real Values of Tropical Biodiversity of Southeast Asia BIOTROP October 4th 2013 IPB Convention Centre, Bogor THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Context •  SE Asia: biodiversity “hot spots” •  Yet has the highest relative rate of deforestation in the tropics •  Major drivers include illegal logging, conversion to agriculture, the wildlife trade etc. •  Future for Asia’s biodiversity look bleak for many reasons (population growth, changing demographics) •  Other challenges: achieving food security •  What role for research?? THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Global biodiversity hot spots THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. people in 2002 [13,72]. In particular, Singapore has transformed itself from a developing country of squatters and slums to a developed metropolis of economic prosperity within the past few decades and, thus, has been widely regarded by the leaders of regional developing countries as the ideal economic model. However, the success of Singapore came with a hefty price, paid for by its biodiversity. The island has suffered massive already unfolding on a much larger scale in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia [73]. Extrapolations based on the species–area model calibrated to the biodiversity losses in Singapore indicate that the current rate of habitat destruction in Southeast Asia will result in the loss of 13–42% of regional populations of all species by 2100, at least half of which could represent global species extinctions (Figure I) [3]. Biodiversity under threat THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Protected areas? THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. Drivers of change: logging THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Drivers of change: agriculture THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Oil palm expansion and forest loss THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. A green desert THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Wildlife trade THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. Food security •  Changing demographics •  Changing appetites •  How to grow enough nutritious food for future populations without compromising environmental outcomes? THINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. Segregation of land use is the norm Plantation Agriculture Forest THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. Land sparing/sharing within landscapes THINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. Multi-functionality •  Combination of separate land units with different functions (spatial segregation) •  Different functions on the same unit of land but separated in time (temporal segregation) •  Different functions on the same unit of land at the same time (functional integration or “real multifunctionality) THINKING beyond the canopy
  18. 18. Landscape assessment for development •  Collecting economic data at various levels, engaging most stakeholders •  Spatial data: administrative boundaries, land cover change and current land uses •  “Governance landscape” including local (traditional) institutions •  Focus on ecosystem services and agricultural productivity and away from protected areas alone THINKING beyond the canopy
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopy
  20. 20. The role of research •  Biodiversity research in SE Asia has lagged behind rest of the tropics •  Distribution of research is taxonomically biased (e.g. emphasis on mammals) •  Integrated research looking at socioeconomic factors greatly needed THINKING beyond the canopy
  21. 21. How are we doing? The MDG’s What hope for the SDG’s post-2015?? THINKING beyond the canopy
  22. 22. The environment: more than $$ alone! THINKING beyond the canopy
  23. 23. The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) is one of the 15 centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy

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