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Silviculture for Smallholders: improving local forestry value chains

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This presentation by James Roshetko from ICRAF given during the Forests Asia Summit in the discussion forum "Equitable development: Improving livelihood benefits for smallholders in the forestry value chain" focuses on understanding farmer systems and farmer silviculture. It shows the Farmer demo trials and recommendations as well.

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Silviculture for Smallholders: improving local forestry value chains

  1. 1. Silviculture for Smallholders improving local forestry value chains James M Roshetko, ICRAF Agroforestry Systems Scientist and Leader Trees and Markets Unit SEA Forum: Equitable development: Improving livelihoods benefits for smallholders in the forestry value chain Forests Asia Summit, Shangri-La Hotel, Jakarta 5-6 May 2014
  2. 2. Indonesia contributors Vietnam contributors CSIRO Vietnamese Academy of Forest Science Funded smallholder forestry research
  3. 3. Smallholder – key producers of timber & NTFPs!! • Indonesian smallholders produce 80% of the teak timber used by small & medium furniture producers and … • … key producers of rattan, forest honey, sandalwood, gaharu, damar, benzoin, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, candlenut, rubber, cacao, coffee, oil palm and tea ... • management skills sub-optimal ... limited access to relevant technical information, effective extension services, and market information .. Address needs participatory research approach
  4. 4. • Why do they plant teak? - 54% as family savings (teak is a living bank account) - 23% as cultural heritage - only 15% to maximize income • Prefer Mixed Systems : - four types of teak systems (monoculture - mix tree garden) - ↓ risk; ↑ diverse crops, products & income for home; sustain good environment - tebang butuh – cut for needs • Farmers want: - better silviculture management - access to quality germplasm, - access to market information - expand intercropping - retain ‘tebang butuh’ Understanding Farmers Systems … 55.90% 11.30% 7.40% 5.80% 4.00% 2.40% 1.40% 1.20% 1.10% 0.90% 0.80% 0.70% 0.50% 0.10% 6.50% Jati Mahoni Lamtoro Akasia Tayuman Gleresede Melinjo Turi Johar Kelapa Mangga Jambu meteTeak - 56% trees
  5. 5. Farmer Silviculture • Regeneration: 72% wildlings, 30% local seedling, 20% coppice, 12% improved germ. • Pruning: 65% farms, 55% trees – yield fuelwood, 10-15 cm stub • Thinning: 57% thinning (but really harvesting biggest trees) • Coppice: no thinning • Not management for improving production /growth Poor silviculture practices! → Farmers teak systems … overstock, slow growing, low quality, low productivity
  6. 6. Farmer Demo Trials (FDTs) • 6 Locations • Trees 5-6 years old • FDT Treatments - Thinning: i) control, ii) maximum 40-45% (target 4x4m – 625 trees/ha) - Pruning: i) control; ii) 50% total height; & iii) 60% total height - Singling: i) control; & ii) ‘singling’ • Monitored every 6 months Results (+ 2 yrs) • Thinning & Pruning: Rainy season growth increment ↑, dry season no sig. increase • Thinning- Pruning 60%: DBH 60% ↑, height 124% ↑ • Singling Treatment: Thinning versus No Thinning: DBH 45% ↑, height 80% ↑ • Good results – farmer real conditions
  7. 7. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Sep08-May09 May09-Nov09 Nov09-May10 May10-Nov10 Diameterincrement(cm) NP_NT NP_T P50_NT P50_T P60_NT P60_T Recommendations (FDTs & Surveys) - Use better quality germplasm - Thin coppice - Thinning stands to medium stocking (625 trees / ha ) - Pruning 60% of total height, do not leave branch stubs - No thinning trees/stands quality ↓ - Leaving branch stub tree quality ↓ Activities • Field manual • Trainings (extension staff & farmers) • Cross-visits • Pruning tools to farmer groups • Meetings gov. Impacts Independent assessment • Project area 70% farmer ↑knowledge , 50% adopt, & 30% disseminate to others • Outside area 30% farmer ↑knowledge, 20% adopt, & 15% disseminate to others
  8. 8. 0. 6.5 13. 19.5 26. 32.5 0 10 50 150 Stemvolume(m3/ha) P level (kg/ha) Niru75 Niru79 Niru232 Gmg119 Fertilizer application at planting • Forest soils in Vietnam are generally lacking in P • 50 kg P ha-1 based on responses to P found in Indonesia • Responses to P application apparent all sites • P supply linked to N fixation • Growth rate at thinning will determine thinning response Species: Acacia hybrid
  9. 9. Form pruning • Acacia hybrid has very high growth rates • Multi-stems are common first few months after planting • Stock type and growth rate can affect branch size • Timely form pruning essential to allow the retained leader to rapidly establish apical dominance
  10. 10. Stock type • Acacia hybrid planting stock most commonly produced from clonal hedges • Hedge age is associated with loss of vigour and dominance • Tip cuttings are anticipated to have greater apical dominance • The effect of clone type on expression of form is unknown More Research
  11. 11. Key message • Smallholders key producers of timber & NTFP • Systems have positive impacts on sustainable lanadscapes, support farmers livelihoods, source of industrial timber • Participatory research agenda (farmers, researchers, government, etc) to address smallholders management needs and guide investment in research and development
  12. 12. The World Agroforestry Centre United Nations Avenue, Gigiri P.O Box 30677 Nairobi, 00100, Kenya Phone: +254 20 722 4000 Fax: +254 20 722 4001 Email: icraf@cgiar.org Web: www.worldagroforestry.org Terima Kasih!!!

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