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Scrutinizing the 'feminization of agriculture' hypothesis: Trajectories of labor force participation in agriculture in Indonesia

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Kartika Juniwaty, research associate at the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), presented at the Seeds of Change: Gender Equality Through Agricultural Research for Development conference held at the University of Canberra, Australia, on April 2-4, 2019.

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Scrutinizing the 'feminization of agriculture' hypothesis: Trajectories of labor force participation in agriculture in Indonesia

  1. 1. Scrutinizing the 'feminization of agriculture' hypothesis: Trajectories of labor force participation in agriculture in Indonesia Kartika Sari Juniwatya,b, Markus Ihalainena, Iliana Monterrosoa, Marlene Eliasca Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) b Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia c Bioversity International Seeds of Change Conference, University of Canberra, April 3rd, 2019
  2. 2. Outline Background and Motivation Research Context Research questions Methodology and Data Initial Findings Next steps
  3. 3. Background and Motivation • Feminization of agriculture is widely used, definitions vary • Doss et al., 2018 argue that interventions based on gender myths may impede the effectiveness of policies o Call for better understanding of gender roles, looking beyond women o Call for more empirical analysis  This study aims to provide empirical evidence in relation to the feminization of agriculture
  4. 4. Research Context • Agriculture contribution to Indonesian economy and labor absorption are declining overtime • Indonesia aim for food self sufficiency • Over the last ten years, national statistics show: o Share of women relative to men in agriculture:  2008: 38.79%, 2018: 37.49% o Percentage of agriculture in women labor:  2008: 42.80%, 2018: 28.39%
  5. 5. Research questions o How is the women labor participation in agriculture change overtime? o Do women exit agriculture at the same rate as men? o If they are exiting, to which sectors? o What are the characteristics of those who exit? o Why?
  6. 6. Methodology: Mixed-methods Quantitative Analysis: Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 20 years of longitudinal data, rich in variables, high follow-up rate, and including split-off households 5 rounds: 1993, 1997, 2000, 2007, 2014 Sources:Witoelar (2016) – Presentation material Household level • Household Characteristics • Farm Business • Non Farm Business • Household Assets • Non Labor Income • Economics Shocks • Consumption • Knowledge on Family Planning Service Individual level • Education • Subjective Wellbeing • Marital History & Pregnancy Summary • Household Decision Making • Non Labor Income • Migration • Circular Migration • Employment & Retirement* • Risk and Time Preference* Trust* • Health & Community Participation Community level: Environtmental condition, employment, services, price, government programs, etc.
  7. 7. Initial Findings Households entry and exit agriculture Inter-sectors labor movement from and to agriculture Women’s working hours are reduced over time, but they are age dependent 1 3 2
  8. 8. 1. Dynamics of household-level participation in Farm business Zoom into household found in all 5 rounds 1993 1997 2000 2007 2014 From 2,415 households participated in farm business in 1993: • 6% moved out completely after the first round • 47% stayed at least twice in any time – entry and exit • 47% stayed the whole period N=5,590 Households
  9. 9. 2. Trajectories of women’s labor participation Retrospective data recorded in 2014 Individual 15 years older in 2007 2011 20142008
  10. 10. Are women remaining in agriculture? 2011 vs 2014 Female exit from agriculture is mainly driven by exiting labor force – school or child bearing? 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Women Men 81.24 85.31 10.48 2.46 Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, hunting Manufacturing Wholesale, retail, restaurant, and hotels Social service Others Exit Labor Force
  11. 11. Which sectors were the agriculture labors come from? Comparing sectors in 2011 vs 2014 78.6 79.54 16.38 11.12 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Women Men Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, hunting Manufacturing Wholesale, retail, restaurant, and hotels Social service Others Non Labor Force
  12. 12. Women work fewer hours than men in agriculture Women’s working hours in agriculture are reduced over time, but they are age dependent  3. Change in working hours in normal weeks hours 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 <25 25-34 34-45 45-54 55-64 >65 Non-Agriculture 2000 men 2000 women 2007 men 2007 women 2014 men 2014 women 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 <25 25-34 34-45 45-54 55-64 >65 Agriculture 2000 men 2000 women 2007 men 2007 women 2014 men 2014 women
  13. 13. Next steps: o Add household-level and community-level explanatory variables to interrogate gender dynamics behind entering/exiting agriculture  Labor composition in households - including migration  Socio-economic condition  Spatial analysis  Farm/production characteristics
  14. 14. gender.cgiar.org We would like to acknowledge all CGIAR Research Programs and Centers for supporting the participation of their gender scientists to the Seeds of Change conference. Photo: Neil Palmer/IWMI
  15. 15. cifor.org forestsnews.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org THANK YOU

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