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Science-based pathway for long-term solution to fire and haze


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Presentation by Daniel Murdiyarso on fire and haze in Indonesia at the Fire Dialogue In Jakarta, Indonesia, 2015.

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Science-based pathway for long-term solution to fire and haze

  1. 1. Science-based pathway for a long-term solution to fire & haze Daniel Murdiyarso
  2. 2. Contributors • David Gaveau • Sofyan Kurnianto • Imam Basuki • Nisa Novita
  3. 3. What are our charges? • What policy or regulatory changes and associated tools need to be put in place to restore degraded peat lands and swamps and/or improve the productivity of degraded mineral soils? • Can drainage-intensive activities be accommodated on peat-lands and swamps in the long-term, and what are the alternatives? What needs to be done to stop further development and drainage of peat-land? • How can degraded mineral and peat lands and swamps contribute to a long- term solution to fire and haze? • What are best management practices on managing and utilizing degraded tropical peat lands and swamps that can be replicated and up-scaled?
  4. 4. Outline • Introduction • Fires: past and present • Newly burned forests/lands? • Characterizing biophysical properties • Hydrology/water regimes • Geophysical properties • Quantifying C budget • Flux and stock change approaches • Emission factors • Policy implications • Key messages
  5. 5. Fires: past and present Gaveau et al. In prep
  6. 6. Newly burned forests and lands? Gaveau et al. In prep
  7. 7. Ground Penetrating Radar CMP survey Comas et al. In prep
  8. 8. 100 150 200 Ground Penetrating Radar – CO survey Comas et al. In prep
  9. 9. Kurnianto et al. In prep Hydraulic conductivity – forests Canal Plot for the slug test 150 m 30 m 2rw 2rc y H L slug Water level recorder D Peat Ks = 0.01 to 13.8 m/day Mean Ks = 1.33 m/day
  10. 10. Ks = 0.02 to 3.5 m/day Mean Ks = 0.28 m/day Kurnianto et al. In prep Hydraulic conductivity – oil palm
  11. 11. More canals more fires Gaveau et al. In prep
  12. 12. Flux change approach 11.8 ± 0.7 Mg CO2-eq ha-1yr-1, or 294 ± 18 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 over 25 yrs Stock change approach 2221 ± 269 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 (maximum peat depth was 3 m) Note: • C losses from multiple fires during land preparation are not included • Net emissions from protected PSF 12 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 CO2 emissions from forest conversion to oil palm plantation Novita et al. 5 In prep.
  13. 13. Total C stocks Aboveground C stoks Belowground C stocks (Mg ha-1 yr-1 ) Undrained sec. swamp forest (N=4) 4359 239 (5.5%) 4119 (94.5%) 0 0 Drained sec. swamp forest (N=6) 4085 191 (4.7%) 3893 (95.3%) 274 11.0 Wet shrub (N=5) 3413 39 (1.2%) 3373 (98.8%) 946 37.8 Oil palm (N=5) 3679 23 (0.6%) 3655 (99.4%) 680 27.2 Land use types (Mg ha-1 ) Emission Factor Emission factors Basuki et al. In prep CO2 Emission CO2 Gains Balance Emission Factor (Mg ha-1 yr-1 ) Undrained sec. swamp forest (N=3) 31.6 34.4 2.8 0.0 Drained sec. swamp forest (N=3) 32.4 31.0 -1.4 -4.2 Wet shrub (N=3) 28.9 4.2 -24.7 -27.5 Oil palm (N=3) 37.4 2.8 -34.6 -37.4 (Mg ha-1 yr-1 ) Land use types 1.4 4.2 24.7 27.5 34.6 37.4
  14. 14. Scaling impacts and policy responses days year years decades Spatialscale Temporal scale Global Regional National Landscape Patch Post-fire Nutrient releases Transformed multi-level policies Damages to property and crops Spatial planning and fire prevention capacity development Elevated watershed sediment exports Regional haze treaty Regional cooperation on early warning systems and fire-fighting capacities Technical assistance programs GHG emissions & Climate change Murdiyarso and Lebel 2007 Changes in land development policies
  15. 15. Reversing land-use trajectory?
  16. 16. Key messages • Fire regimes change over time but they are completely anthropogenic and mainly associated with land-use policy, governance and tenure systems • Peat swamp (forest) fires and smoldering haze cause detrimental impacts on human health and GHG emissions • Quantifying peat biogeochemical and physical properties would facilitate informed land-use decisions and fire prevention • Information on peat depth, hydrology are key for multi- levels policy formulation
  17. 17. CIFOR advances human well-being, environmental conservation, and equity by conducting research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries. Thank you