What are our charges?
• What policy or regulatory changes and associated tools need to be put in
place to restore degraded peat lands and swamps and/or improve the
productivity of degraded mineral soils?
• Can drainage-intensive activities be accommodated on peat-lands and
swamps in the long-term, and what are the alternatives? What needs to be
done to stop further development and drainage of peat-land?
• How can degraded mineral and peat lands and swamps contribute to a long-
term solution to fire and haze?
• What are best management practices on managing and utilizing degraded
tropical peat lands and swamps that can be replicated and up-scaled?
Flux change approach
11.8 ± 0.7 Mg CO2-eq ha-1yr-1, or
294 ± 18 Mg CO2-eq ha−1 over 25 yrs
Stock change approach
2221 ± 269 Mg CO2-eq ha-1
(maximum peat depth was 3 m)
• C losses from multiple fires during
land preparation are not included
• Net emissions from protected PSF
12 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1
CO2 emissions from forest conversion to
oil palm plantation
Novita et al. 5 In prep.
Total C stocks
4359 239 (5.5%) 4119 (94.5%) 0 0
4085 191 (4.7%) 3893 (95.3%) 274 11.0
3413 39 (1.2%) 3373 (98.8%) 946 37.8
3679 23 (0.6%) 3655 (99.4%) 680 27.2
Land use types
Basuki et al. In prep
CO2 Emission CO2 Gains Balance Emission Factor
31.6 34.4 2.8 0.0
32.4 31.0 -1.4 -4.2
28.9 4.2 -24.7 -27.5
37.4 2.8 -34.6 -37.4
Land use types
Scaling impacts and policy responses
days year years decades
Damages to property
Spatial planning and fire prevention
Regional cooperation on early warning
systems and fire-fighting capacities
GHG emissions &
Murdiyarso and Lebel 2007
Changes in land
• Fire regimes change over time but they are completely
anthropogenic and mainly associated with land-use policy,
governance and tenure systems
• Peat swamp (forest) fires and smoldering haze cause
detrimental impacts on human health and GHG emissions
• Quantifying peat biogeochemical and physical properties
would facilitate informed land-use decisions and fire
• Information on peat depth, hydrology are key for multi-
levels policy formulation
CIFOR advances human well-being, environmental conservation, and equity by conducting
research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries.