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Rethinking about site-level restoration strategies for degraded tropical forests


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Presented by Ma Hwan-Ok of ITTO at the 3rd Asia-Pacific Rainforest Summit, on 23–25 April 2018 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Rethinking about site-level restoration strategies for degraded tropical forests

  1. 1. 3rd ASIA-PACIFIC RAINFOREST SUMMIT Rethinking about Site-level Restoration Strategies for Degraded Tropical Forests Ma Hwan-Ok, ITTO 3rd ASIA-PACIFIC RAINFOREST SUMMIT 23-25 April 2018, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  2. 2. Outline of the Presentation  Tropical Forest Landscapes  Degraded forests – ecological context  Site-level Restoration Strategies for Degraded Forests  Accelerating natural recovery - Conservation of Shorea spp Genetic Diversity in Kalimantan, Indonesia  Assisting natural regeneration - Dipterocarp planting in Indonesia  Promoting community-based rehabilitation – teak plantations in West Java, Indonesia  Some messages
  3. 3. 250 mm ha 800 – 1,000 mm ha 110 mm ha 700-800 mm ha Non-accessible old-growth forest, Effectively Protected Areas Openly accessible Forest Area: Opened-up forests, Degraded old-growth forests, Secondary forests, Degraded forest land Timber production forests, with or without concessions “Forest areas” in a multiple landscape, tree plantations, agrofor, small wood lots Tropical Forest landscape: A variety of forest-land use options Source: Blaser and Sabogal (2002): ITTO Guidelines for Forest Restoration and Secondary Forest Management Global Forest Area: 4033 million ha One third of the world’s land area is forest
  4. 4. Source: Blaser and Sabogal (2002): ITTO Guidelines for Forest Restoration and Secondary Forest Management Authors’ estimates. Based on FAO (1982, 1990, 1995, 2001); Sips (1997); Wadsworth (1997); WRI-World Bank (2000). In tropical America, about 38 million ha are classified as secondary forests (second-growth forests). For the other regions it is not possible to distinguish between degraded primary forests and secondary forests Extent of degraded forest Only rough estimates exist, no thresholds Laestadius and Potapov (2009): More than 1 billion ha ITTO (2002): about 850 million ha WRI (2014): 104 million ha (more than 8 percent) of the world’s Intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have been degraded since 2000 WRI (2014): More than two billion hectares worldwide offer opportunities for restoration an area larger than South America. Most of these lands are in tropical and temperate areas
  5. 5. “Primary/ Managed Forest” Secondary Forests (Regrown forests) Degraded Primary forests Degraded Forest Lands Planted forest ,Forest fire, extreme events Harvesting Non sustainable Forest mgtm. The forgotten middle ground in the past: Degraded forest ecosystems: Natural forests “Forested area Outside natural forest areas Degraded forests – ecological context Progressive over-use
  6. 6. Rehabilitation of deforested or degraded forest lands Reforestation of degraded forests with commercial plantations Reforestation with commercial plantations Assisted natural regeneration Natural regeneration Stage of degradationHigh Low High HighLow Low Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services Time & Cost Adopted from APFNet Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) FLR: A process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded forest landscapes (GPFLR)
  7. 7. ITTO Restoration Projects in Indonesia Forest Degradation of Tropical Peatland in South Sumatra ITTO Budget: USD 149,493 EA: Regional Research Center of South Sumatra Lake Toba Catchment Rehabilitation ITTO Budget: USD 549,974 EA: FORDA, MOF Cempaka Tree Species in North Sulawesi ITTO Budget: USD 435,187 EA: MFRI,FORDA,MOF Conservation of Tengkawang Genetic Diversity in Kalimantan ITTO Budget: USD 414,104 EA: Dipterocarps Research Center, FORDA, MOF Rehabilitation of RAMIN in Sumatra and Kalimantan ITTO Budget: USD 507,903 EA: FORDA Plantation of Bali Indigenous Species ITTO Budget: USD 597,512 EA: Bali Provincial Forestry Service Model Development Plantation of Dipterocarps ITTO Budget: USD 461,212 EA: FAHUTAN, UGM Sandalwood in East Nusa Tenggara Province ITTO Budget: USD 593,163 EA: Forestry Service of East Nusa Tenggara Province Community-based Plantation Forest in Indonesia ITTO Budget: USD 465,151 EA: Directorate of Plantation Forest Management, MoF Reduced impact logging in Indonesia ITTO Budget: USD 611,863 EA: CFET, MOF with TFF Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest land in West Java ITTO Budget: USD 493,236 EA: FORDA, LRSF Strategy for Developing Plantation Forest ITTO Budget: USD 508,234 EA: Directorate of Plantation Forest Management, MOF Ex-situ Conservation of Shorea leprosula ITTO Budget: USD 710,400 EA: Faculty of Forestry, UGM
  8. 8. Conservation of Shorea spp Genetic Diversity in Kalimantan, Indonesia: accelerating natural recovery • Tengkawang (Shorea spp) has important role in ecology and economy for indigenous people but it is threatening due to adverse environmental condition, unsuccessful conservation • Dipterocarps Forest Research Center implemented ITTO project (PD586/10) on Tengkawang; established genetic diversity conservation plots of T. (2 ex-situ plots in E. Kalimantan, 2 in-situ plots in W. K. & 1 in-situ plot in S. K.) • Lesson learned: Integrated strategy and continuity of knowledge transfer of Tengkawang issue, including its identification, needs serious commitment and good cooperation from government agencies and related stakeholders; increasing roles of village cooperatives Fencing T. tree to facilitate harvesting process In W Kalimantan Marking a mother tree of Tengkawang Distribution of Tengkawang mother trees in Kalimantan
  9. 9. Dipterocarp planting in Indonesia: assisting natural regeneration-enrichment planting • Gadjah Mada University implemented ITTO project [PD41/00]; screened 64 potential dipterocarp species; selected the three best- performing Shorea species as the basis for producing planting materials • Developed an innovative silvicultural system and model for planting in logged-over forests  3 m wide strips are cleared in a straight line, which are separated by 17 m blocks of semi- natural forests.  The seedlings from the selected best species are planted in line in the cleared areas at a stocking rate of 200 stems/ha (thinned to 160 stems/ha) • Revisit “The Kalimantan Forest Company Model” incorporating the use of improved indigenous species for rehabilitation of logged over forests, integrated pest management and organic soil nutrient enhancement techniques Line-planting of dipterocarps in logged- over forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia
  10. 10. In Ciamis District: extensive area of degraded forest land but most is in government land while private forests cover 32,000 ha; no tenure conflicts around private forests; well developed “tree planting culture” Forestry Services of Ciamis District with FORDA implemented ITTO Project (PD 27/04): • 10 farmers groups for special emphasis in building capacity - “quality” of seedling production • Application of silviculture techniques • Development of a business model – leading to a village as a SFM unit Lesson learned: • Support to motivated local leaders is effective in spreading knowledge and information to improve productivity of private forests. • Improving marketing conditions for forest products from private forests is a difficult challenge • An enabling regulatory framework is more effective than an enforcing one requiring farmers to plant tree seedling and protect forests Rehabilitation of degraded forest land in Ciamis District, West Java, Indonesia Motivated local community leader in promoting quality teak seedlings in Ciamis District Furniture from plantation teak in private forests in Ciamis District
  11. 11. Some messages  Production forests with FMU management plans are key to achieving sustainable forest management - strict conservation measures (e.g. at least 10% area); social forest allocation; improved productivity from production forests  Urgency to restore degraded tropical forests with site- level viable strategy accelerating natural recovery and assisting natural regeneration – conservation of genetic resources and production of quality planting materials; long-term local research programs (good science) and motivated local leaders;  Adaptation to support the restoration and sustainable management of degraded forest lands - keeping forests young, weed, pest and fires management, increased vulnerabilities of forest dependent people, improving marketing forest products  High level of investments in restoration of degraded forests and forest ecosystem adaptation under the Paris Agreement
  12. 12. Thank You!