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REDD+ in Ethiopian silvipastoral systems: effects on vegetation, livelihoods and wildfire risk

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Presented by Maria Johansson (Stockholm Uni.) on 28 August 2019 at "Fire Trends in Ethiopia in the Context of REDD+ and FLR Investments" Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Published in: Environment
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REDD+ in Ethiopian silvipastoral systems: effects on vegetation, livelihoods and wildfire risk

  1. 1. REDD+ in Ethiopian silvipastoral systems: effects on vegetation, livelihoods and wildfire risk Maria Johansson, Stockholm Uni. Kristoffer Hylander, Stockholm Uni. Sileshi Nemomissa, Addis Ababa Uni. Habtemariam Kassa, CIFOR Carl Frisk, Uni. of Worcester Senait Dereje Senay, Uni. of Minnesota Emma Creathorn, Stockholm Uni.
  2. 2. Bale Mountains 2700–3900 masl. subalpine forests and heathlands Ethiopia Addis Ababa Gibe Valley 1100–1600 masl. savanna 10° 40°
  3. 3. Take home Message 1: - Prevent Wildfire with Prescribed Fire
  4. 4. Take home Message 2: - Livestock prevent fire by consuming surface fuels
  5. 5. The Bale Mountains Eco-Region REDD+ project (2013) REDD+ = large-scale landuse change to increase carbon storage → Increased quantity/connectivity of surface fuels → Increased ignition due to conflicting goals? At the same time increased frequency of drought
  6. 6. 5 yr (0.6m) Heathland fire cycle 2 yr (0.2m) 11 yr (1.9m) 0 yr (0m) Highly flammable vegetation - fire exclusion not feasible
  7. 7. A 14 000-year fire history of the Bale Mountain Ericaceous belt Feedback Fire
  8. 8. Patch-burning creates fuel-breaks in the landscape
  9. 9. Fire exclusion >10 years: →loss of fuel breaks Bale Mountains NP: - Increased fire problem February 2008April 2008 March 2019 Photo: MELCA-EthiopiaPhoto: Ian Fulton
  10. 10. February 2008 inside BMNP – few large burns outside - many small burns
  11. 11. Fires have become -larger inside BMNP - smaller outside
  12. 12. Deep humus smoldering kills Erica lignotubers -Late ignition during drought (March-April) when the humus is dry
  13. 13. - No tree regeneration (due to shade) 10-yr biomass acc. max +2kg(dw)/m2 grass/litter max +6 cm (2kg/m2) humus Never cured 2006-2016 (Burnt after 1890´s Rinderpest) Hagenia abyssinica forest exclosures 3400m
  14. 14. Gibe Valley 1100–1600 m.a.s.l. savanna - Burnt & grazed for long time Increased grazing → reduced grass fuel → “cool fires” → bush encroachment
  15. 15. - 2 yr grazing exclusion →high-intensity fire killing shrubs - 1976 tse-tse →high-intensity fires killed tall trees
  16. 16. Recommendations: * Knowledge of local fire ecology/history * Understanding of landusers´ incentives * Joint fire management in savanna & heathland * Grazing + cut&carry surface fuel mgt in grazed forests * Rethink scale and speed of forestation * Joint fire mgt workshop in Botswana

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