RealisingREDD+National strategy and policy options<br />April 2010<br />
CIFOR A brief introduction<br />Established in 1993<br />One of 15 centres in the Consultative Group for International Agr...
Our research strategy<br />1<br />Enhancing the role of forests in mitigating climate change<br />2<br />Enhancing the rol...
Global Comparative Study on REDD (GCS-REDD)<br />National REDD process and strategies (Component 1)<br />REDD demonstratio...
GCS-REDD: Countries and activities<br />Starting 2010<br />
The role of forests in international climate negotiations<br />1997: Negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol<br />Annex I countr...
The core idea of REDD+<br />Carbon value of forests <br />Performance-based<br />
Book on global REDD architecture CIFOR 2008<br />Key messages<br />Technical solutions exist<br />BUT<br />Often trade-off...
Book on REDD+ at the national level CIFOR 2009<br />Key facts<br />40+ countries preparing national REDD+ strategies<br />...
Different national circumstances and challenges<br />Avoid leakage and deforestation in business as usual (BAU)<br />REDD+...
Drivers of forest carbon change<br />
Structure of ‘Realising REDD+’<br />
Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: ...
Implications from the global REDD+ architecture <br />Phased approach<br />Scope of creditable REDD+ activities<br />Scale...
Implication 1: Phased approach<br />
Implication 2: Scope of creditable activities<br />Forest carbon (C) = forest area (ha) * carbon density (C/ha)<br />
Implication 3: Crediting scale<br />Nested approach<br />Sequential: first project,then national<br />Simultaneous: both c...
Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: ...
Institutional structure: The 3Is<br />
Measurement, reporting and verification systems are the foundation for international payments in the longer term<br />Only...
MRV systems Three major challenges<br />Linking measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) to policy design<br />Unders...
Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: ...
Two-track approach to REDD+<br />TRANSFORMATIONAL REFORMS<br />SPECIFIC POLICIES<br />Tenure reform<br />PES(payments for ...
Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: ...
Agricultural policies<br />Reducing Emissions Agricultural Policy (REAP)<br />Prioritise agricultural assistance to high-p...
Woodfuel policies<br />Demand side<br />Cooking efficiency<br />Fuel substitution<br />Supply side<br />Production efficie...
Payments for Environmental Services <br />Potentially an effective instrument, but many preconditions required<br />Clear ...
Integrated conservation and development projects and protected areas<br />Protected areas<br />protect forests, even after...
Sustainable forest management<br />Promote third-party certification (e.g. Forest Stewardship Council) and make accessible...
Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: ...
The landscape of emerging REDD+ projects 179 projects surveyed<br />Projects can inform national REDD+ strategies ('mini t...
Testing REDD+ <br />
Planners versus searchers<br />A lot of the REDD+ actions will be a failure (if we/they dare to evaluate them)<br />More g...
Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: ...
The dilemmas ahead<br />REDD+ must be new ... but build on what has gone before.<br />REDD+ must be transformational ... i...
Key messages<br />REDD+ is a unique opportunity<br />The money and political will are there, but past performance is mixed...
CIFOR’s site-specific REDD research in Indonesia<br />Estimating carbon stocks: Aceh, Papua, East Java, Jambi, Central Kal...
Demonstration activities: Preliminary typology<br />Papua, <br />undetermined<br />Sumatra, <br />undetermined<br /><ul><l...
4 district or province-level REDD activities (large circles)
Red circles = preliminary research for grouping by type</li></li></ul><li>Selected publications: 2009<br />Lessons from th...
Lessons learned from the Reforestation Fund study<br />Build capacity for financial management and revenue administration<...
Reforestation Fund study: Main messages<br />Financial monitoring, reporting and verification (F-MVR) are as important as ...
Knowledge sharing 2009<br />Media briefs: AFP, website, Metro TV, others<br />REDD network and website<br />'Simply REDD' ...
Developing civil society capacity for monitoring and measuring carbon pools<br />Participating leaders and institutions<br...
Building REDD literacy in Indonesia: Website, publications<br />
www.cifor.cgiar.org<br />www.forestsclimatechange.org<br />
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REDD+ National strategy and policy options

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REDD+ National strategy and policy options presented at the 3rd Indonesian Roundtable discussion and FORDEF, Indonesia, April 2010.

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REDD+ National strategy and policy options

  1. 1. RealisingREDD+National strategy and policy options<br />April 2010<br />
  2. 2. CIFOR A brief introduction<br />Established in 1993<br />One of 15 centres in the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research<br />Focus on forest policy research and global comparative studies<br />Headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia<br />80 scientific staff working in the major forests of Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America<br />‘Centre without walls’<br />
  3. 3. Our research strategy<br />1<br />Enhancing the role of forests in mitigating climate change<br />2<br />Enhancing the role of forests in adapting to climate change<br />Improving livelihoods through smallholder and community forestry<br />3<br />Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale<br />4<br />Managing impacts of globalised trade and investment on forests and forest communities<br />5<br />6<br />Sustainably managing tropical production forests<br />
  4. 4. Global Comparative Study on REDD (GCS-REDD)<br />National REDD process and strategies (Component 1)<br />REDD demonstration activities (Component 2)<br />Monitoring and reference levels (Component 3)<br />Knowledge sharing (Component 4)<br />www.forestsclimatechange.org<br />
  5. 5. GCS-REDD: Countries and activities<br />Starting 2010<br />
  6. 6. The role of forests in international climate negotiations<br />1997: Negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol<br />Annex I countries emission reduction commitment (average emissions 2008-2012 = 5% lower than 1990 levels)<br />2001: Marrakesh Agreements<br />Role of forests in the CDM defined, but only afforestation and reforestation<br />2007: REDD included in the Bali Action Plan<br />Early action and demonstration activities encouraged<br />Readiness investments (Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), UN-REDD, bilateral donors)<br />2009: Copenhagen Accord<br />‘recognises the crucial role of REDD+’, but much remains unclear<br />Unfolding REDD+ mechanism comparable to development aid (different donors, rules, systems)<br />REDD+ inclusion in UNFCCC climate deals not likely before 2015 <br />
  7. 7. The core idea of REDD+<br />Carbon value of forests <br />Performance-based<br />
  8. 8. Book on global REDD architecture CIFOR 2008<br />Key messages<br />Technical solutions exist<br />BUT<br />Often trade-offs<br />Political issues<br />Flexibility needed <br />country circumstances<br />learning process<br />
  9. 9. Book on REDD+ at the national level CIFOR 2009<br />Key facts<br />40+ countries preparing national REDD+ strategies<br />100+ REDD demonstration activities<br />> 20 years of forest policy experience<br />Options assessment<br />3E+: Effectiveness, efficiency, equity, co-benefits<br />Options depend on context<br />
  10. 10. Different national circumstances and challenges<br />Avoid leakage and deforestation in business as usual (BAU)<br />REDD+ challenges<br />Forest<br />cover<br />DRC<br />Ghana<br />Suriname<br />PNG<br />Brazil<br />Bolivia<br />Indonesia<br />Cameroon<br />Mozambique<br />Reduce deforestation<br />Promote afforestation and reforestation<br />Continue conservation<br />Vietnam<br />China<br />India<br />Costa Rica<br />Time<br />Stage 2 Forest frontiers<br />Stage 1 <br />Little-disturbed forests<br />Stage 3Forest-agricultural mosaics<br />Stage 4 Forest/plantations/ agricultural mosaics<br />
  11. 11. Drivers of forest carbon change<br />
  12. 12. Structure of ‘Realising REDD+’<br />
  13. 13. Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: Building REDD+ institutional architecture and processes<br />Part 3: Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reformsPart 4: Doing REDD+ by changing incentives<br />Part 5: Testing REDD+ through pilots<br />Key messages & outlook<br />
  14. 14. Implications from the global REDD+ architecture <br />Phased approach<br />Scope of creditable REDD+ activities<br />Scale of accounting<br />Performance-based approach<br />Sources of funding: official development assistance (ODA), funds, markets<br />Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), and reference levels<br />Participation of indigenous people and local communities<br />
  15. 15. Implication 1: Phased approach<br />
  16. 16. Implication 2: Scope of creditable activities<br />Forest carbon (C) = forest area (ha) * carbon density (C/ha)<br />
  17. 17. Implication 3: Crediting scale<br />Nested approach<br />Sequential: first project,then national<br />Simultaneous: both coexist<br />The most flexible<br />BUT<br />Harmonisation issues<br />Credit sharing questions<br />
  18. 18. Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: Building REDD+ institutional architecture and processes<br />Part 3: Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reforms<br />Part 4: Doing REDD+ by changing incentives<br />Part 5: Testing REDD+ through pilots<br />Key messages and outlook<br />
  19. 19. Institutional structure: The 3Is<br />
  20. 20. Measurement, reporting and verification systems are the foundation for international payments in the longer term<br />Only three countries have both good forest stock and good change data<br />
  21. 21. MRV systems Three major challenges<br />Linking measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) to policy design<br />Understand hotspots  spatial targeting<br />Understand drivers sectoral and actor targeting<br />Allowing early participation and interim performance<br />Accept conservativeness principle (discounting)<br />Define proxies to measure interim performance<br />Establish incentives for graduation towards better MRV<br />Aligning national MRV and subnational implementation<br />Provide dedicated support to subnationalREDD+ activities<br />Integrate community monitoring in national MRV system:<br />cheaper and about as accurate<br />co-benefits: employment, participation, legitimacy<br />
  22. 22. Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: Building REDD+ institutional architecture and processes<br />Part 3: Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reforms<br />Part 4: Doing REDD+ by changing incentives<br />Part 5: Testing REDD+ through pilots<br />Key messages & outlook<br />
  23. 23. Two-track approach to REDD+<br />TRANSFORMATIONAL REFORMS<br />SPECIFIC POLICIES<br />Tenure reform<br />PES(payments for environmental services)<br />Governance<br />Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)<br />Decentralisation<br />Agricultural policies<br />Woodfuel policies <br />May or may not directly lead to REDD+<br /><ul><li>But has positive effects on equity and poverty reduction, necessary for the long-term success of REDD+ efforts </li></ul>Land use restrictions <br />Sustainable forest management<br /><ul><li>simpler, technically and politically</li></li></ul><li>Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reforms<br />Tenure and rights<br />Rights are critical<br />Tenure reform essential for long-term success of REDD+ (re 3Es: effectiveness, efficiency, equity)<br />Some ‘no regrets’ REDD policies that should not be missed<br />Carbon rights = precondition for subnational crediting (whom to pay?)<br />Corruption<br />Creates severe limitations, in some cases very difficult to address (systemic institutional changes needed)<br />Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon and money can reduce risk of corruption<br />Decentralisation and community-based forest mgt.<br />Enhancing 3E outcomes and legitimacy<br />Extensive research on success factors (Ostrom)<br />
  24. 24. Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: Building REDD+ institutional architecture and processes<br />Part 3: Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reforms<br />Part 4: Doing REDD+ by changing incentives<br />Part 5: Testing REDD+ through pilots<br />Key messages & outlook<br />
  25. 25. Agricultural policies<br />Reducing Emissions Agricultural Policy (REAP)<br />Prioritise agricultural assistance to high-productivity non-forested areas (and remove deforesting subsidies)<br />Make agricultural policies more place-based (spatially targeted)<br />Selective support for extensive agriculture<br />Potential trade-offs<br />Promote conservation agriculture<br />
  26. 26. Woodfuel policies<br />Demand side<br />Cooking efficiency<br />Fuel substitution<br />Supply side<br />Production efficiency<br />Controlling harvest<br />Plantations<br /> 1. combine policies, and 2. no substitute for harvest control <br />
  27. 27. Payments for Environmental Services <br />Potentially an effective instrument, but many preconditions required<br />Clear understanding of whom to pay and for what<br />Clearly defined and secured tenure (property rights)<br />Institutions to monitor performance and channel payments <br />Main recommendations<br />Apply consequent conditionality (pay after performance)<br />Target to high threat/high carbon density areas (additionality) <br />Differentiate payments to increase cost efficiency<br />
  28. 28. Integrated conservation and development projects and protected areas<br />Protected areas<br />protect forests, even after controlling for passive protection<br />have a greater role in REDD+ than previously assumed<br />ICDPs have mixed results, but reasons for poor performance are well understood<br />need to learn from past experience<br />
  29. 29. Sustainable forest management<br />Promote third-party certification (e.g. Forest Stewardship Council) and make accessible for small and low-intensity managed forests<br />Require and support the use of reduced impact logging techniques <br />Use taxation close to felling site to discourage wastage<br />Secure resource access (durable concessions, use rights, private/community ownership) <br />Wildfire control and forest restoration<br />
  30. 30. Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: Building REDD+ institutional architecture and processes<br />Part 3: Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reforms<br />Part 4: Doing REDD+ by changing incentives<br />Part 5: Testing REDD+ through pilots<br />Key messages & outlook<br />
  31. 31. The landscape of emerging REDD+ projects 179 projects surveyed<br />Projects can inform national REDD+ strategies ('mini test cases'), including reform priorities to enable local REDD<br />Landscape of REDD+ projects varies significantly:<br />Third party certification has a major influence - CCBS: Climate Community and Biodiversity Standards- VCS: Voluntary carbon standard<br />
  32. 32. Testing REDD+ <br />
  33. 33. Planners versus searchers<br />A lot of the REDD+ actions will be a failure (if we/they dare to evaluate them)<br />More good questions than answers<br />Make it a learning experience <br />'Learning while doing'<br />Learning requires a systematic approach.<br />Project design<br />Data collection<br />Analysis<br />Large potential benefits: 5% of $10 billion <br />
  34. 34. Realising REDD+:National strategy and policy options<br />Part 1: Moving REDD+ from global to national level<br />Part 2: Building REDD+ institutional architecture and processes<br />Part 3: Enabling REDD+ through broad policy reforms<br />Part 4: Doing REDD+ by changing incentives<br />Part 5: Testing REDD+ through pilots<br />Key messages and outlook<br />
  35. 35. The dilemmas ahead<br />REDD+ must be new ... but build on what has gone before.<br />REDD+ must be transformational ... in a world where change is incremental.<br />REDD+ requires targeted interventions … and broad sectoral coordination.<br />REDD+ needs policies ... but the bias is towards projects.<br />Promising REDD+ approaches ... but no silver bullets.<br />REDD+ is urgent ... but cannot be rushed.<br />We know a lot ... but need to learn while doing.<br />
  36. 36. Key messages<br />REDD+ is a unique opportunity<br />The money and political will are there, but past performance is mixed<br />Context matters: REDD+ policies need to work on two tracks<br />Start long-term transformational reforms, or accelerate some of those ongoing (e.g. land titling cadastre)<br />Start short-term policies, but identify ‘low-hanging fruits’; important also to demonstrate commitment: 'Yes we can – and will – do REDD'<br />REDD is about PES-like performance-based payments<br />But strong preconditions apply  rely on some old approaches (e.g. protected areas)<br />Learn from the past while moving forward<br />
  37. 37. CIFOR’s site-specific REDD research in Indonesia<br />Estimating carbon stocks: Aceh, Papua, East Java, Jambi, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan<br />Leakage: Central Kalimantan<br />Biomass and mangrove ecosystems: Sulawesi<br />Planned: Starting January 2010, six more sites are to be selected for an assessment of pilot activities and development of tools for REDD project design <br />
  38. 38. Demonstration activities: Preliminary typology<br />Papua, <br />undetermined<br />Sumatra, <br />undetermined<br /><ul><li>27 REDD projects in Indonesia
  39. 39. 4 district or province-level REDD activities (large circles)
  40. 40. Red circles = preliminary research for grouping by type</li></li></ul><li>Selected publications: 2009<br />Lessons from the development of reference levels by demonstration activities in Indonesia<br />Evaluation of biomass equation for mangrove ecosystems<br />Forest tenure reform in Indonesia in light of REDD<br />Land-use dynamics of tropical peatland: Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions<br />Indonesia’s forest laws and regulations: Implications for REDD<br />REDD capacity building needs<br />A study of the Reforestation Fund and lessons for REDD<br />
  41. 41. Lessons learned from the Reforestation Fund study<br />Build capacity for financial management and revenue administration<br />Strengthen corruption and fraud eradication initiatives<br />Support financial monitoring, reporting, and verification<br />Adjust policies to remove misaligned and perverse incentives<br />Impose robust due diligence and accountability mechanisms for recipients of public finance <br />Promote equitable distribution of benefits and mitigate negative impacts on smallholders<br />
  42. 42. Reforestation Fund study: Main messages<br />Financial monitoring, reporting and verification (F-MVR) are as important as monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon emissions.<br />The use of Reforestation Fund monies to subsidise plantation development, coupled with weak mechanisms for accountability, encourages irresponsible practices . These could be replicated by REDD participants if recommendations are not addressed.<br />
  43. 43. Knowledge sharing 2009<br />Media briefs: AFP, website, Metro TV, others<br />REDD network and website<br />'Simply REDD' published in Indonesian<br />Briefing to the Indonesian Parliament in November<br />Reforestation Study briefings (FORDA, Ministry of Finance)<br />Government–NGO dialogues on REDD (Yogyakarta, others)<br />Brochure on CIFOR’s work on REDD<br />Building civil society capacity for monitoring and measuring carbon pools<br />
  44. 44. Developing civil society capacity for monitoring and measuring carbon pools<br />Participating leaders and institutions<br />REDD developers<br />Local governments<br />Private sector<br />Civil society<br />National Council on Climate Change (DNPI)<br />UNFCCC Secretariat<br />50 participants<br />
  45. 45. Building REDD literacy in Indonesia: Website, publications<br />
  46. 46. www.cifor.cgiar.org<br />www.forestsclimatechange.org<br />

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