Ken Creighton gave this presentation on 22 May 2013 at a panel session during the two-day policy and science conference entitled "Sustainable forest management in Central Africa: Yesterday, today and tomorrow", organized by CIFOR and its partners and held in Yaounde, Cameroon. The panel, titled “Response to climate change in Central Africa: Realities and challenges”, focused on revisiting previous efforts in forest management for climate change and on considering future directions while considering the interest of forest communities.
Realities of ClimateRealities of ClimateChange in the CongoChange in the CongoBasinBasinKen Creighton, Ph.D.Ken Creighton, Ph.D.Central Africa Program forCentral Africa Program forthe Environmentthe Environment(CARPE)(CARPE)firstname.lastname@example.org@usaid.govCIFOR Conference – Yaoundé – May 2013
Goal: To help countries accelerate their transitionGoal: To help countries accelerate their transitionto climate-resilient, low emission developmentto climate-resilient, low emission developmentOverarching Principle:Overarching Principle: To strengthen developmentTo strengthen developmentoutcomes through direct climate change programoutcomes through direct climate change programinvestments and by integrating climate changeinvestments and by integrating climate changethroughout USAID programming, learning, policythroughout USAID programming, learning, policydialogues, and internal operations.dialogues, and internal operations.Strategy: Strategy: Invest in land use practices that stop, slow,Invest in land use practices that stop, slow,and reverse emissions from deforestation andand reverse emissions from deforestation anddegradation of forest and other landscapes.degradation of forest and other landscapes.
Forest cover change in the Congo BasinForest cover change in the Congo Basinfrom 1990 to 2010from 1990 to 2010
Multisectorial Approaches to Land ManagementMultisectorial Approaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+To achieve and sustain REDD+ requires theTo achieve and sustain REDD+ requires theunderstanding and management of a variety ofunderstanding and management of a variety ofinfluences that span a number of sectors:influences that span a number of sectors:Forest management and exploitationForest management and exploitationAgriculture and grazingAgriculture and grazingTransportation InfrastructureTransportation InfrastructureMiningMiningPopulation growth and movementsPopulation growth and movementsPlanned and spontaneous settlements and urbanPlanned and spontaneous settlements and urbangrowthgrowthConservation and management ofConservation and management of ““naturalnatural””landscapeslandscapes
MultisectorialMultisectorial Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+There are several different approachedThere are several different approachedbeing tried to address thebeing tried to address the ““multisectorialmultisectorial””nature of REDD such as:nature of REDD such as: REDD+REDD+ Full terrestrial accounting orFull terrestrial accounting or ““REALUREALU””(reduced emissions from all land use)(reduced emissions from all land use) JurisdictionalJurisdictional REDD+REDD+
MultisectoralMultisectoral Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+REDD+REDD+Seeks to achieve overall emissionsSeeks to achieve overall emissionsreductions or stabilization throughreductions or stabilization throughmanagement of carbon stocks and flows by:management of carbon stocks and flows by:Reducing deforestation and degradationReducing deforestation and degradationImproving forest management practicesImproving forest management practicesEnhancing forest carbon stocks throughEnhancing forest carbon stocks throughplantations and agroforestryplantations and agroforestryMaintaining carbon stocks through conservationMaintaining carbon stocks through conservation
MultisectoralMultisectoral Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+REALUREALU:: RReducingeducing EEmissions frommissions from AAllll LLandand UUsessesSeeks to achieveSeeks to achieve overall emissions reductions oroverall emissions reductions orstabilization through management of carbon stocks andstabilization through management of carbon stocks andflows by improving land management practices across aflows by improving land management practices across arange of land usesrange of land uses with the goal to enhance the capacitywith the goal to enhance the capacityto sequester and maintain carbon stocks thoughto sequester and maintain carbon stocks thoughimprovements in a variety of land use practices, that areimprovements in a variety of land use practices, that arealigned with local goals and aspirationsaligned with local goals and aspirations for sustainablefor sustainabledevelopment including:development including:ForestryForestryAgriculture and pastoralismAgriculture and pastoralismPlanning of urban andPlanning of urban and periperi-urban settlements and-urban settlements andsupporting infrastructuresupporting infrastructure
MultisectoralMultisectoral Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+Jurisdictional REDD+Jurisdictional REDD+Has similar goals and methods as REDD+ and REALUHas similar goals and methods as REDD+ and REALUbut places thebut places the emphasis on integrated land useemphasis on integrated land useplanning at the level of individual political unitsplanning at the level of individual political units suchsuchas districts, provinces, municipalities, cantons, etc.as districts, provinces, municipalities, cantons, etc.and seeks toand seeks to achieve quantifiable resultsachieve quantifiable results fromfromimplementation of appropriateimplementation of appropriate locally developed,locally developed,endorsed and adopted policiesendorsed and adopted policies, measures and, measures andpracticespractices that are aligned with local priorities andthat are aligned with local priorities andaspirations and based on broad agreement reflectedaspirations and based on broad agreement reflectedin local legal instruments reflecting culturallyin local legal instruments reflecting culturallyaccepted norms and practices.accepted norms and practices.
MultisectoralMultisectoral Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+Drivers of deforestation, forest degradationDrivers of deforestation, forest degradationand increased land-based greenhouse gasand increased land-based greenhouse gasemissions can be divided into two types.emissions can be divided into two types.ProximateProximate causes (immediate, driven bycauses (immediate, driven bycurrent needs and desires)current needs and desires)UltimateUltimate or underlying causes (e.g. poverty,or underlying causes (e.g. poverty,population movements,population movements,
Short term and Long term (underlying) Drivers ofShort term and Long term (underlying) Drivers ofIncreasing Forest-based EmissionsIncreasing Forest-based EmissionsUnderlying drivers:Underlying drivers:PovertyPovertyFood securityFood securityConflict (or climate)Conflict (or climate)driven migrationdriven migrationPopulation growthPopulation growthRising expectation andRising expectation andneedsneedsRecurrent andRecurrent andincreasing needs forincreasing needs forenergy, buildingenergy, buildingmaterialsmaterialsDirect drivers:Direct drivers:Expansion of agricultureExpansion of agricultureand pasturageand pasturageWood extraction for fuelWood extraction for fueland commerceand commerceMining and drillingMining and drillingEconomic migrationEconomic migrationIndirect drivers:Indirect drivers:TransportationTransportationinfrastructureinfrastructureIncreased global pricesIncreased global pricesand demand forand demand forcommoditiescommodities
MultisectoralMultisectoral Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONSOBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Sustainable reduction of land based emissions willSustainable reduction of land based emissions willrequire an understanding ofrequire an understanding of BOTHBOTH the proximatethe proximatecauses and underlying drivers of emissions growth.causes and underlying drivers of emissions growth. REDD+REDD+ andand REALUREALU are affected by both intrinsic andare affected by both intrinsic andextrinsic factors that , to be successful, may ultimatelyextrinsic factors that , to be successful, may ultimatelyrequire a broadrequire a broad multisectorialmultisectorial approach to climateapproach to climatechange mitigation such as through preparation ofchange mitigation such as through preparation of LowLowEmissions Development StrategiesEmissions Development Strategies that take intothat take intoaccount the range of factors and will ultimately requireaccount the range of factors and will ultimately requirecloseclose integration across sectorsintegration across sectors andand broad agreementbroad agreementamong constituentsamong constituents of the desired approached that willof the desired approached that willvary among jurisdictions at scales from localvary among jurisdictions at scales from localcommunities to nations and, perhaps, evencommunities to nations and, perhaps, evenmultinational regions.multinational regions.
MultisectoralMultisectoral Approaches to Land ManagementApproaches to Land ManagementRelated to REDD+Related to REDD+Thank you for your attention.Thank you for your attention.Ken CreightonKen CreightonClimate Change Specialist, Regional AdvisorClimate Change Specialist, Regional AdvisorUSAID/CARPEUSAID/CARPEkcreighton@email@example.com