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Progress on Ethiopia’s REDD+ Program: REDD+ Readiness and Current Initiatives in Ethiopia

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Presented by National REDD+ Secretariat (Ethiopia) on 28 August 2019 at "Fire Trends in Ethiopia in the Context of REDD+ and FLR Investments" Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Progress on Ethiopia’s REDD+ Program: REDD+ Readiness and Current Initiatives in Ethiopia

  1. 1. PROGRESS ON ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ PROGRAM: REDD+ READINESS AND CURRENT INITIATIVES IN ETHIOPIA National REDD+ Secretariat www.ethiopiareddplus.gov.et
  2. 2. OUTLINE 1. National Context of REDD+ 2. REDD+ Readiness 3. Current REDD+ Investment Initiatives 4. Ethiopia’s MRV 5. 5. Forest Fire in Ethiopia 6. Challenges and Opportunities for REDD+ 7. Conclusions and Way forward
  3. 3. • CONVICTION OF GOE: AS CLIMATE CHANGE HAS BECOME INEVITABLE, DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING A CRGE STRATEGY REQUIRES THE INTEGRATION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION. 3 Mitigation Adaptation Development CRGE Power, agriculture and forestry related mitigation (REDD+1) are some of the major cornerstones of climate compatible development Adaptation -climate change risks- reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience 1. NATIONAL CLIMATE ACTION: CRGE STRATEGY (2011)
  4. 4. 1. NATIONAL CONTEXT: REDD+ AND ETHIOPIA’S NDC Ethiopia’s climate vision 2030:  Ethiopia aspires to build carbon neutral, middle income economy, climate resilient society by 2030.  The NDC pledge is 64% emission reduction by 2030 compared to BAU scenario. 4 CRGE/NDC sectors Emission in 2010 BAU Emission in 2030 Sectoral Emission Reduction Emission Reduction in percent Remarks Agriculture 75 185 90 49% Source Forestry* 55 90 130 144% Sink Power 5 5 na na Transport 5 40 10 25% Source Industry 5 70 20 29% Source Buildings 5 10 5 50% Source Total 150 400 255 64%
  5. 5. 2. REDD+ READINESS: GOALS OF REDD+ IN ETHIOPIA  The national REDD+ strategy is set to deliver on large part of greening Ethiopia’s economy and to meet international commitments (NDC)  Goal: To contribute to CRGE goals of achieving net zero emissions by 2030 through implementation of forestry strategies  REDD+ program aims to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and bring significant part of the country’s degraded areas under forest cover through forest restoration, afforestation and reforestation activities (FLR)  Investment focus areas:  strengthening institutions at all levels,  improving the legal and regulatory frameworks,  promoting stakeholder’s engagement and coordination, and  implementing on the ground investments for improved forest management and livelihoods
  6. 6. 2. DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION AND FOREST DEGRADATION Indirect Drivers Population Inadequate law enforcement Institutional capacity Poverty Agricultural expansion Fuelwood Illegal logging Fire Direct Drivers Uncontrolled grazing Infrastructure dev’t
  7. 7. 2. REDD+ READINESS REQUIREMENTS  In REDD+ readiness, countries are expected to:  Assess major drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and identify appropriate policies and measures for tackling deforestation drivers = REDD+ strategy  Develop a system to measure performance in REDD+ implementation = National forest monitoring system (NFMS/MRV)  Set baseline for emissions from main drivers of deforestation = Forest reference level (FREL)  Assess environmental and social risks associated with REDD+ implementation and develop safeguards systems to ensure that there are no perverse impacts on communities and the environment = REDD+ safeguards
  8. 8. 2. REDD+ READINESS ACHIEVEMENTS Assessment on drivers of DD (2) Analysis of legal and institutional gaps (2) FREL approved by UNFCC: AD from RS and EF from new NFI One MRV Lab at federal and 4 at regional level; decentralized and fairly staffed Cosultation 500,000 people Media to millions Consolidation of MRV Capacity (Phase 2) Norway,USFS, BioCF SESA, ESMF, RPF, PF, GRM info@ www.ethiopiareddplus.gov.et
  9. 9. 2. REDD+ READINESS ACHIEVEMENTS  Awareness and sensitization of the public on forestry increased (TV, radio, meetings, trainings, workshops, electronic media, etc)  National capacity on forestry in general enhanced (materials, vehicles, equipment, skills, MRV-forest cover and change analysis, NFI, etc)  Improved knowledgebase on the forest sector- assessments, analytical studies, discussions/dialogues  Mainstreaming forestry/REDD+ in national programs (GTPs/FSDPs)  Improved legal and institutional framework  REDD+ strategy, Forest inventory report.
  10. 10.  REDD+ Partnership Agreement with Norway signed in 2013 just as we began readiness (Key partnership)  REDD+ investment program signed in July 2017 (80 million USD) - Norway  Oromia Forested Landscape Program supported with BioCarbon Fund as of March 2017 (18 million USD- USA and Norway and 50 million USD for RBPs) 2. READINESS ACHIEVEMENTS –FUND MOBILIZATION
  11. 11. Ethiopia’s R‐Package Presentation,  Lao PRD
  12. 12. 3. CURRENT REDD+ INVESTMENT PROGRAMS (1) Oromia Forested Landscape Program (OFLP)  One of the four international pilots supported by ISFL (BioCF)  18 Million USD for investment grant  50 million USD for results based payment  Signed in March 2017) (2) REDD+ Investment Program (RIP)  Approximately 80 million USD for transformation phase  Support provided by Norway (Bilateral REDD+)  Additional, 20 million USD for international TA  Aims on the ground interventions for ER and invest in transformation activities in the forest sector.
  13. 13. 3.1 OROMIA FORESTED LANDSCAPE PROGRAM (OFLP) OVERVIEW Implementation period‐ five years (2017‐2022) Total program budget‐ USD 18M, USD 50M for RBPs Fund management: EFCCC and OEFCCA Executing entities‐ EFCCC, OEFCCA PIU‐ Oromia REDD+ Coordination Unit (ORCU) Target regions and Weredas : Oromia (SW and SE forested  landscapes); 52Weredas + Strategic investment at region  level
  14. 14. 3.1 OFLP – AN INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVE
  15. 15. • CRGE Vision • GTP II • National REDD+ Strategy Oromia Forested Landscape Program REDD+ Projects • Bale Mountains REDD+ project • Ethio-Wetlands REDD+ project Activities to be financed by mobilization grant Coordination with relevant initiatives across sectors • SLMP • AGP • LIFT • Etc. 3.1 OFLP - NATIONAL ALIGNMENT- KEY PROJECT DESIGN FEATURES…NATIONAL PILOT
  16. 16. Forest loss and degradation is increasing in Oromia.  501, 210 ha of forest was lost between 2000 and 2013 or around 38,554 ha per year  5, 259 ha A/R per annum  65 million tCO2e emitted into the atmosphere between 2000 and 2013 or around 5 million tons annually  annual atmospheric removal of 734,916 tCO2e due to A/R 3.1 OFLP - DEFORESTATION HOTSPOTS IN OROMIA
  17. 17. 5 • The causes of DD most often are linked to other sectors Cross-sectoral interventions and measures required to address DD Agricultur e • Subsistence agriculture expansion • Commercial agriculture expansion Livestoc k • Grazing area expansion Energ y • Fuel wood collection • Charcoal production Underlying causes • Ineffective land use planning • Inadequate cross-sectoral policy and investment coordination 3.1 OFLP - KEY PROJECT DESIGN FEATURES… Drivers of DD across Oromia • Therefore, OFLP design took into account a jurisdictional and landscape approaches to REDD+
  18. 18. 3.1 OFLP - PROGRAM COMPONENTS Component 1: Enabling Investment Land-use Planning TA Investment and Extension Services Forest Mngt.Investment in Deforestation Hotspots Component 2: Enabling Environment Institutional Capacity Building Enabling Env’t Enhancements Information Safeguards Management Program Management Component 3: Emission Reduction Payments
  19. 19. 6 Participatory Forest Management, A/R Increase Agriculture productivity Improve cooking stoves / biogas Intensified livestock manageme nt Policy interventions OFLP MENU OF ACTIVITIES 3.1 OFLP - KEY PROJECT DESIGN FEATURES…
  20. 20. 3.2 REDD+ INVESTMENT PROGRAM (RIP) OVERVIEW Implementation period‐ four years (2017‐2020) Total program budget‐ NOK 600 million or ~USD 75M Fund management: MoF and regional counterparts Executing entities‐ EFCCC (lead), MOA, MOWIE Collaborating entity‐ UNDP Target regions: Oromia, SNNP, Gambella, Tigray, Amhara
  21. 21. 3.2 RIP THEORY OF CHANGE • Deforestation &  forest  degradation is  threatening  Sustainable  Development • Limited capacity in the forestry  sector • Gaps in scalable  models for  impactful  forestry  (including  livelihoods)  Protecting  carbon‐rich  forests & scaling‐ up community  based forestry  Transforming the  capability of the  forestry sector  Developing  scalable forestry  models in  partnership with  other players  Exploring forest‐ based livelihoods  options  Large‐scale  forestry/DD  protection  program put in  place  Capability built  in forestry sector  to generate new  models &  proactively seek  funding  Public‐private &  CSO partnership  strengthened  Forestry‐based  livelihoods  created RIP IMPLEMENTATION RIP OUTCOMES CURRENTSITUATION
  22. 22. 3.2 RIP (DD AND AR) TARGETS Activity Targeted area (ha) Target weredas Forestry models chosen DD Total SNNPR Oromia Gambella 660,0000 (320,000) (270.000) (70,000) 59 PFM ANR 720,000ha 54 ANR/Area closure AR 54,000ha 54 Reforestati on (Planting) Forest Sector Transformation component
  23. 23. 3.2 RIP ‐ FOREST (DD) PROTECTION TARGETS  Deforestation and degradation reduced by  over 50% across 660,000 ha of forests in 59  woredas across Ethiopia;  ~8 Mt CO2 abatement per year by 2020  Community based forest enterprises:159  cooperatives   Improved livelihoods: 50,000  households
  24. 24. 3.2 RIP ‐ IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENT o The CRGE Facility management committee oversees the  program implementation o Financial management, disbursement, auditing, M&E  periodic reporting is through CRGE Facility o Program implementation involves sectoral coordination (Forestry, Agriculture/Livestock, Energy, Cooperatives, Finance) o EFCCC is the key implementer and coordinator of intervention activities at different levels
  25. 25. 3.2 RIP ‐ FOREST (DD) PROTECTION TARGETS
  26. 26. 3.2 RIP ‐ KEY INTERVENTION ACTIVITIES Key implementation activities in DD protection areas o Forest management (PFM) o Climate Smart Agriculture o Climate Smart Livestock production o Improved biomass energy use (Energy efficient stoves) o Livelihoods creations
  27. 27. 3.2 RIP ‐ TARGET REGIONS & INTERVENTION WOREDAS (DD) SNNPR= 29  woredas
  28. 28. 3.2 RIP ‐ REGIONS & INTERVENTION WOREDAS (DD) Oromia= 24 woredas
  29. 29. 3.2 RIP ‐ REGIONS & INTERVENTION WOREDAS (DD) Gambella= 6 woredas
  30. 30. 3.2 RIP-AR INTERVENTION WOREDAS N Zone Woreda PY1 PY 2 1 Arsi Robe √ 2 Shirka √ 3 Limo Bilbilo √ 4 East Hararge Meta √ 5 Dadar √ 6 Qarsa √ 7 North Shewa Wara Jarso √ 8 Kuyu √ 9 West Arsi Kofale √ 10 Arsi Nagele √ 11 West Hararge Gamachis √ 12 Chiro √ 13 Tulo √ 14 West Shewa Gindeberet √ 15 Abuna Gindeberet √ 16 Jaldu √ 17 Toke Kutaye √ In 6 zones, 17 woerads: - Started in 2010 – 11 - Started in 2011 – 6
  31. 31. 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV  Ethiopia’s Forest Definition:  Land spanning at least 0.5 ha covered by trees (including bamboo) (with a minimum width of 20m or not more than two‐thirds of its length) attaining a height of at least 2m and a canopy cover of at least 20% or trees with the potential to reach these thresholds in situ in due course  2 m (low height) to accommodate dry forests  0.5 ha to allow for possible resolutions in spatial technology  20% canopy cover to control for forest degradation
  32. 32. NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY NFI EF FOREST AREA CHANGE DETECTION RS AD ER (FREL/F RL) 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV
  33. 33. 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV- NFI
  34. 34. EMISSION FACTORS: AGB, BGB, DW Biomes BIOMASS (t ha-1) CARBON (t ha-1) CO2e (t ha-1) Acacia-Commiphora 76.8 38.4 141.4 Combretum-Terminalia 92.4 46.2 170.3 Dry Afromontane 145.3 72.7 268.8 Moist Afromontane 256.9 128.4 473.1 ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV- NFI
  35. 35. 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV- AD Spatial Analysis for AD estimates:  Emission estimates from deforestation and removal estimates from A/R,  Forest area loss and forest area gain assessed by creating a wall-to-wall forest change map.
  36. 36. DATA SOURCES: TIER 2 • EF FROM NFI CALCULATED PER BIOME • AD (2000-2013) FROM RS • ACTIVITIES: DEFORESTATION & A/R • POOLS: AGB, BGB, DEADWOOD • GAS: ONLY CO2 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV- FREL/FRL
  37. 37. TOOLS/SOFTWARES USED (FAO TA 4YEARS MRV PROJECT) R GEE API OF SEPAL OF COLLECT R-SHINY APP OF COLLECT EARTH TNRS/IPLANTCOLLABORATIVE QGIS OF CALC OF SAIKU MS EXCEL 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV- CAPACITY
  38. 38. 1. Forest cover in 2013 (stable forest plus forest gain) has been estimated at 17,705,574 ha 2. Thus, forest cover is 15.5% 3. Annual forest loss (annual deforestation rate, ADD) is 91,735 ha ha (0.54%) 4. Annual forest gain (annual reforestation rate, ADR) is 18,928 ha 5. EFs: Biomass, Carbon & CO2e per ha per four Biomes 6. Emission per year = 17,978,735 t CO2e _ (2000-2013) 7. Reduction per year = 4,789,935 t CO2e _ (2000-2013) 4. ETHIOPIA’S REDD+ MRV- BASELINE DATA
  39. 39. 5. FOREST FIRES IN ETHIOPIA  Fire is a natural features of most vegetation in Ethiopia  Vulnerable ecosystems to fire: Lowland forests, grasslands, shrublands/woodlands, dry Afromontane forests, sub-alpine vegetation  Despite its vulnerability to frequent forest fires, Ethiopia has not established a national capacity to fight fires  Countries like South Africa, Kenya and Israel support the country during fire incidences  1.5 M tons CO2e from burning (savannas and forests).
  40. 40. 6. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN REDD+  Challenges:  Difficulty in coordination of sectors  Inadequate institutional capacity  Unsure prospect for financial and technical assistance from developed countries  Opportunities:  Government will (National agenda)  CRGE strategy (green growth raising the profile of forestry agenda)  Ethiopia’s commitment in leadership of the global process
  41. 41. 7. CONCLUSIONS AND WAY FORWARD  Ethiopia is among the few leading countries in moving REDD+/green economy agenda  Technical and financial requirements of forestry development is huge  Bilateral, multilateral and UN support are welcome, including fire management).
  42. 42. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Royal Government of Norway UK Government www.ethiopiareddplus.gov.et

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