Conflicts and Fires in Riau:
How mediation can be a tool for transformation
Ahmad Dhiaulhaq
RECOFTC-The Center for People ...
Outline
• Community-outsider conflict in Riau
• Conflict and fires
• Mediation as a tool for conflict transformation
RECOFTC-The Center for People and Forests
RECOFTC’s mission is to enhance capacities
for stronger rights, improved governa...
Community-outsider conflict in Riau
Natural Resource Conflict in Riau
262,877
329,763
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
2008 2009 2010 ...
Distribution of indigenous communities in Riau
Source RTRWP Konsep Laporan Akhir, 2000
How serious is the issue?
Source : Scale Up database
2011 30 cases; 4 people died
2012 29 cases; 37 injured; 1 died
2013 6...
Conflict and fires
Fire as a
weapon and
tool to express
dissatisfaction
Fire as a tool
for claiming
land and
excluding
oth...
RECOFTC mediation research
a process whereby an acceptable third party
assists conflicting parties in solving their
conflict problems with no authori...
A story from Lubuk Jering Village, Riau
Severity and duration of conflict
Blockade
1994
Some fire incidences
Concession
granted
1997
Latent
phase
Escalation
phase...
Roles of mediation in conflict
• The mediation played a crucial role in
transforming plantation conflicts in the
study sit...
Outcomes of mediation
 Achievement of agreement
 Significant reduction of tension
and intensity of conflict
 Relationsh...
Challenges in the field
 Local socio-political climate is not
always supportive
 The agreement is not legally
binding
 ...
For further information:
Ahmad Dhiaulhaq
ahmad.dhiaulhaq@recoftc.org
www.recoftc.org
Take home message
• Firefighting alon...
References
Dhiaulhaq, A., Gritten, D., De Bruyn, T., Yasmi, Y., Zazali, A., & Silalahi, M. (2014). Transforming
conflict i...
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Conflicts and Fires in Riau: How mediation can be a tool for transformation

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This presentation by Ahmad Dhiaulhaq from RECOFTC given during the Forests Asia Summit in the learning event "Fire and haze in Southeast Asian landscapes" focuses on the fires in Riau. It discusses the community-outside conflict in Riau, the conflict and the fires and mediation as a tool for conflict transformation.

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  • Since 2012, RECOFTC together with our partners in Thailand, Indonesia and Cambodia have done a comprehensive research to look into the use of mediation in transforming forest and land conflict in the region, covering different types of conflict including conflict in protected areas in Thailand, conflict related to economic land concessions, and mining in Cambodia, and there two sites in Indonesia (Jambi and Riau) which the mediation was applied in pulpwood and oil palm plantation conflicts.What we look at was:How has mediation been applied to forest and land conflictsWhat factors define the outcome of mediation and what are the challengesHow can mediation as a tool for conflict transformation can be mainstreamed
  • Good relations with communities = smoother operations = higher profits
  • Conflicts and Fires in Riau: How mediation can be a tool for transformation

    1. 1. Conflicts and Fires in Riau: How mediation can be a tool for transformation Ahmad Dhiaulhaq RECOFTC-The Center for People and Forests
    2. 2. Outline • Community-outsider conflict in Riau • Conflict and fires • Mediation as a tool for conflict transformation
    3. 3. RECOFTC-The Center for People and Forests RECOFTC’s mission is to enhance capacities for stronger rights, improved governance and fairer benefits for local people in sustainable forested landscapes in the Asia and the Pacific region. RECOFTC has more than 26 years of international experience and a dynamic approach to capacity development www.recoftc.org
    4. 4. Community-outsider conflict in Riau
    5. 5. Natural Resource Conflict in Riau 262,877 329,763 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 2008 2009 2010 2011 Extentofconflict(hectares) Year Timber plantations Palm oil plantations Others (incuding Mining Conservation forest) Total Source : Scale Up (2012)
    6. 6. Distribution of indigenous communities in Riau Source RTRWP Konsep Laporan Akhir, 2000
    7. 7. How serious is the issue? Source : Scale Up database 2011 30 cases; 4 people died 2012 29 cases; 37 injured; 1 died 2013 62 cases; 27 injured; 5 died
    8. 8. Conflict and fires Fire as a weapon and tool to express dissatisfaction Fire as a tool for claiming land and excluding others Conflicts undermine incentives to control fires Conflict of ownership = unclear responsibility (e.g. Tomich et al. 1998; Suyanto 2007)
    9. 9. RECOFTC mediation research
    10. 10. a process whereby an acceptable third party assists conflicting parties in solving their conflict problems with no authority to impose a solution Mediation
    11. 11. A story from Lubuk Jering Village, Riau
    12. 12. Severity and duration of conflict Blockade 1994 Some fire incidences Concession granted 1997 Latent phase Escalation phase Peak Large scale land clearing by company Compensation Agreement (KKPA) Settlement phase Delay in realization of compensation Realization of compensation (KKPA) Intensitylevel Series of Mediation MoU / agreement 1940s 1998 1999 2000 2005 2006 2008
    13. 13. Roles of mediation in conflict • The mediation played a crucial role in transforming plantation conflicts in the study sites • Mediation has: Provided a platform for multi- stakeholder dialogue and achieve mutually acceptable solution Built trust among conflicting parties Created a conducive environment for problem solving processes Source: Dhiaulhaq et al. (2014)
    14. 14. Outcomes of mediation  Achievement of agreement  Significant reduction of tension and intensity of conflict  Relationship between company and community is greatly improved  Smoother operation for company (= higher profits?)  Additional income for communities Picture courtesy of Scale Up
    15. 15. Challenges in the field  Local socio-political climate is not always supportive  The agreement is not legally binding  Mediation sometimes requires long time  There are limited number of skilled mediators available to mediate conflicts  Mediation alone is not enough without changes in Policy Dhiaulhaq et al. (2014)
    16. 16. For further information: Ahmad Dhiaulhaq ahmad.dhiaulhaq@recoftc.org www.recoftc.org Take home message • Firefighting alone will not be enough, without addressing land tenure conflicts • Recognize long-standing land claims and rights of local people • Promote mediation as tool for transforming conflict and building a long-term collaboration in managing fire
    17. 17. References Dhiaulhaq, A., Gritten, D., De Bruyn, T., Yasmi, Y., Zazali, A., & Silalahi, M. (2014). Transforming conflict in plantations through mediation: Lessons and experiences from Sumatera, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 41(0), p 22-30 Dhiaulhaq, A., Gritten, D., & De Bruyn, T. (2014). Mediating Forest Conflict in Southeast Asia: Getting the positives out of conflict over forests and land. RECOFTC Issue Paper No.2. RECOFTC - The Center for People and Forests, Bangkok, Thailand. Scale up, 2012. Laporan Tahunan Konflik Sumberdaya Alam di Riau Tahun 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011. Available at http://www.scaleup.or.id/Buku/LAP_KONFLIK_SDA_2008-2011.pdf Suyanto, S. (2007). Underlying cause of fire: different form of land tenure conflicts in Sumatra. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change,12(1), 67-74. Tomich TP, Fagi AM, de Foresta H, Michon G, Murdiyarso D, Stolle F, Van Noorwijk M (1998) Indonesias fires: smoke as a problem, smoke as a symptom. Agroforestry today 10(1):4–7

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