Global Landscape Forum
Warsaw, 16-17 November 2013

WATER MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS
IN CHANGING CLIMATE
prof. Edward Pierz...
STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION
1. Main issues of water management in rural areas
2. Climate change versus water resources
3. Wa...
MAIN ISSUES OF WATER MANAGEMENT
IN RURAL AREAS
GEOMORPHOLOGY OF POLAND
AND MAIN RIVER BASINS

4
WATER RESOURCES
• average annual precipitation
of 600 mm varies from 70%
to 130% of annual value,
• an average annual rive...
WATER EXPLOITATION INDEX [%]
(EEA, 2012)
WATER MANAGEMENT - CRITICAL SITUATIONS
The most important problems of water management are
the quality of water and their ...
FLOODS AND FINANCIAL LOSSES
OCCURENCE OF FLOODS:

• in the Vistula river basin – every 3 years
• in the Oder basin – every...
CLIMATIC BALANCE AND DROUGHT
IN PERIOD 1951-2000

Number of cases

Source: Ekokonsult, 2010
CLIMATE CHANGE VERSUS WATER RESOURCES
IMPACT OF AIR TEMPERATURE RISE
ON WATER RESOURCES
Decrease of water resources due to:
- decline of snow cover duration,
- ...
WATER
EXPLOITATION
INDEX FOR 2030
(abstraction)

Source:
Ad de Roo et all: A multi-criteria
optimization of scenarios for ...
PROJECTED BEGINNING AND LENGTH
OF THE GROWING SEASON
date

Source: klimat.icm.edu.pl

The beginning
of the growing
season ...
PROBABILITY OF CORN MATURING IN THE THERMAL
CONDITIONS IN PERIOD 1941-1991 COMPARED TO
THE PROJECTIONS FOR THE PERIOD 2001...
WATER MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE
VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE
Emission of greenhouses gases could be mitigate by
proper regulation of soil moisture, specially in organic
soils.
Scale o...
Emission of CO2 depends on fens type, ground water
level, temperature, land use, vegetation state and
varies from 9 to 90 ...
Methane emission
Ground
water
CH4 emission
depth [cm] [mg m-2 h-1]
0
25
50
75

Source:
J. Turbiak,2012

10,1
7,9
4,0
2,9

...
Shaping of appropriate water conditions in the forests
increases the wood production which increase
sequestration of CO2.
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW WATER RESOURCES
Problems:
- technically difficult,
- economically expensive,
- environmentally negative...
SOLUTIONS?
The main ways:
water saving,
water recyckling,
water harvesting.
Tools:
legislation,
economy mechanisms,
...
DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION AREA
Area [mln ha]
Land use

Arable
land

total
area

in this
ameliora- drained area irrigated
tiv...
PROBLEMS
OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

1. Age of drainage and irrigation systems.
2. The legislation.
3. Operation a...
ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS
OF AMELIORATIVE MEASURES
• acceleration of the water cycle in the catchment
area,
• reduction of wat...
MITIGATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS
• conversion drainage systems into controllable (equiped
existing drainage systems with con...
RETENTION OF DRAINAGE OUTFLOW IN PONDS

27
RESTORATION OF WETLANDS

28
CONTROL MEASURES

29
„Increase

of retention ability and mitigation
of flood and drought in lowland forest
ecosystems”
Basic data of the projec...
„Mitigation of water erosion in mountainous
areas and maintenance of torrents and
connected infrastructure in good state”
...
CONCLUSIONS
1. Water management in rural areas play important roles in:
adaptation of land for agricultural and forestry production,
c...
2. Water is a key factor in aspect of climate change.

Water management may help in adaptation to projected
climate change...
3. All strategies, programmes and plans of water
management should not be based on historical
observations only, but shoul...
Thank you for your attention
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Water Management in Rural Areas in a Changing Climate

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This presentation by Prof. Edward Pierzgalski from the Warsaw University of Life Sciences focuses on the main issues of water management in rural areas, climate change versus water resources, water management in agriculture versus climate change and what we should do.

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Water Management in Rural Areas in a Changing Climate

  1. 1. Global Landscape Forum Warsaw, 16-17 November 2013 WATER MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN CHANGING CLIMATE prof. Edward Pierzgalski Warsaw University of Life Sciences
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION 1. Main issues of water management in rural areas 2. Climate change versus water resources 3. Water management in agriculture versus climate change 4. What should we do? 5. Conclusions
  3. 3. MAIN ISSUES OF WATER MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS
  4. 4. GEOMORPHOLOGY OF POLAND AND MAIN RIVER BASINS 4
  5. 5. WATER RESOURCES • average annual precipitation of 600 mm varies from 70% to 130% of annual value, • an average annual river runoff 1.630 m3/inhabitant/year, (in Europe 4.000 m3), • capacity of water reservoirs approx. 6% of the average annual runoff (lower than in neighbouring countries where it exceeds 10%).
  6. 6. WATER EXPLOITATION INDEX [%] (EEA, 2012)
  7. 7. WATER MANAGEMENT - CRITICAL SITUATIONS The most important problems of water management are the quality of water and their temporal and spatial variability, including extreme hydrological events (droughts and floods as well as inadequate water conditions). • Catastrophes Floods Droughts • Short or long term situation Water surplus Water deficits
  8. 8. FLOODS AND FINANCIAL LOSSES OCCURENCE OF FLOODS: • in the Vistula river basin – every 3 years • in the Oder basin – every 5 years • many local floods all over the country every year TYPES OF FLOODS rainfall snow melting rapid heavy rainfall storm LOSSES (bilions EUR) 1997- 4,5 2001 -1,1 2010 - 4,1 Source: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management
  9. 9. CLIMATIC BALANCE AND DROUGHT IN PERIOD 1951-2000 Number of cases Source: Ekokonsult, 2010
  10. 10. CLIMATE CHANGE VERSUS WATER RESOURCES
  11. 11. IMPACT OF AIR TEMPERATURE RISE ON WATER RESOURCES Decrease of water resources due to: - decline of snow cover duration, - increase of ewapotranspiration. Direct effects: - drying of streams, lakes and water reservoirs, - lowering of groundwater level, - drying of soil. Other effects: - negative impact on agricultural production, - deterioration of ecosystem’s health, - decline of forests, - degradation of wetlands, - increase of greenhouse gases emissions.
  12. 12. WATER EXPLOITATION INDEX FOR 2030 (abstraction) Source: Ad de Roo et all: A multi-criteria optimization of scenarios for the protection of water resources in Europe. European Commission, JRC Scientific and Policy Report 2012
  13. 13. PROJECTED BEGINNING AND LENGTH OF THE GROWING SEASON date Source: klimat.icm.edu.pl The beginning of the growing season (T >5oC) (Wrocław region) days Length of the growing season (Wrocław region)
  14. 14. PROBABILITY OF CORN MATURING IN THE THERMAL CONDITIONS IN PERIOD 1941-1991 COMPARED TO THE PROJECTIONS FOR THE PERIOD 2001-2010 2001-2010 1941-1990 0 20 40 60 80 100 % 2000 – 162 000 ha 2011 – 426 000 ha Source: Kozyra i Gorski 2004
  15. 15. WATER MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE
  16. 16. Emission of greenhouses gases could be mitigate by proper regulation of soil moisture, specially in organic soils. Scale of problem: Peatlands and organic soils cover 3-4 % of Earth’s area but contain 30 percent of the world’s soil carbon. It was estimated that in Poland from 0,8 mln ha of wetlands (without forest fens) annual emission CO2 amounts to 14 mln tons (10 place in Europe).
  17. 17. Emission of CO2 depends on fens type, ground water level, temperature, land use, vegetation state and varies from 9 to 90 t ha-1 year-1. It has been found that is a direct relation between amount of emissions CO2 and the ground water level. Emission of N20 varies from 9 to 60 kg ha-1 year-1 and also depends on drainage depth, soil moisture, fertilizers, temperature. Adjusting the ground water table it is possible to reduce emissions of CO2 and N20 significantly.
  18. 18. Methane emission Ground water CH4 emission depth [cm] [mg m-2 h-1] 0 25 50 75 Source: J. Turbiak,2012 10,1 7,9 4,0 2,9 Total CH4 emission in growing season kg ha-1 502 361 198 141
  19. 19. Shaping of appropriate water conditions in the forests increases the wood production which increase sequestration of CO2.
  20. 20. WHAT SHOULD WE DO?
  21. 21. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW WATER RESOURCES Problems: - technically difficult, - economically expensive, - environmentally negative. Source: EEA Eldred 2.08 (European Lakes, Dams and Reservoirs Database), 2008.
  22. 22. SOLUTIONS? The main ways: water saving, water recyckling, water harvesting. Tools: legislation, economy mechanisms, proper water infrastructure and its operation monitoring and controlling systems, research and technology development, participation of all sectors, education
  23. 23. DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION AREA Area [mln ha] Land use Arable land total area in this ameliora- drained area irrigated tive area area 12,11 4,63 [38,2 %] 3,98 [86 % ] 0,05 [1,08 %] Meadows and pasture 3,18 1,79 [56,3 %] 0,40 [22,3 %] 0,36 [20,1 %] Forests 9,27 0,95 [10,3 %] 23
  24. 24. PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 1. Age of drainage and irrigation systems. 2. The legislation. 3. Operation and management. 4. The economic condition of the agricultural sector. 5. Others. 1400 agricultural lands forest areas Reclaimed area [thousands hectares] 1200 1000 800 600 Number of Change YEAR water compared companies to 2000 year 2000 200 0 19511955 19561960 19611965 19661970 19711975 19761980 19811985 19861990 19911995 2748 2005 400 2450 - 298 2010 2290 - 458 2011 2292 - 456 24
  25. 25. ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS OF AMELIORATIVE MEASURES • acceleration of the water cycle in the catchment area, • reduction of water resources, • transfer of pollutions from the surface of the fields by ditches to surface water bodies, • increased leaching of chemicals in drainage areas, • destruction of wetland habitats and organic soils, • impact on emission of greenhouses gases. 25
  26. 26. MITIGATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS • conversion drainage systems into controllable (equiped existing drainage systems with control devices), • retention drainage outflow in ponds, • mitigation of organic soils degradation by precise regulation of ground water level, • recirculation of water on ameliorative objects, • restoration of wetlands, • operation of ameliorative systems on protected areas according to the requirements of protection tasks on these areas. 26
  27. 27. RETENTION OF DRAINAGE OUTFLOW IN PONDS 27
  28. 28. RESTORATION OF WETLANDS 28
  29. 29. CONTROL MEASURES 29
  30. 30. „Increase of retention ability and mitigation of flood and drought in lowland forest ecosystems” Basic data of the project: - 34 mln Euro, - 4100 small water storage and retention structures: -water reservoirs, -water dammning structures, -restoration of forest wetland.
  31. 31. „Mitigation of water erosion in mountainous areas and maintenance of torrents and connected infrastructure in good state” Basic data of the project: - 35 mln Euro, - 129 ponds and reservoirs, - protection of slopes areas against water erosion (53 km of skidding paths), - conservation of 173 km of torrents erosion.
  32. 32. CONCLUSIONS
  33. 33. 1. Water management in rural areas play important roles in: adaptation of land for agricultural and forestry production, control of water balance in scale of watershed, protection against floods and droughts, shaping proper water conditions in natural environment, development of non-productivity functions of rural areas (recreation, tourism, ecotourism).
  34. 34. 2. Water is a key factor in aspect of climate change. Water management may help in adaptation to projected climate change as well may be important tool in mitigation of climate changes. The basic condition for the fulfillment of those roles is appropriate infrastructure and its operation. In Poland, there is an urgent need for technological modernization of existing irrigation and drainage systems and for improvement their operation and maintenance. 34
  35. 35. 3. All strategies, programmes and plans of water management should not be based on historical observations only, but should consider the likely scenarios of climate change.
  36. 36. Thank you for your attention

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