Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Peatlands: Problems and solutions

943 views

Published on

By Dr Hans Joosten, Department of Peatland Studies and Palaeoecology in the Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University Greifswald, Germany.
Presented at the panel discussion organized by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) for the Jakarta Foreign Correspondents Club (JFCC) in Jakarta, Indonesia, on May 19, 2017.
#peatlandsmatter

Published in: Environment
  • Thanks for providing helpful information and for your professionalism. ❤❤❤ https://w.url.cn/s/Ayy1McS
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Government Auto Auctions US Gov't Surplus & Seized Car Auctions. From $100 or 95% Off. ➤➤ https://bit.ly/3h0ICqP
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • D0WNL0AD FULL ▶ ▶ ▶ ▶ http://1lite.top/T6FK7 ◀ ◀ ◀ ◀
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Peatlands: Problems and solutions

  1. 1. Peatlands: problems and solutions Hans Joosten joosten@uni-greifswald.de
  2. 2. In living peatlands: • Production is larger than decay • Dead plants accumulate as ‘peat’ Georgia
  3. 3. Lesotho Peat accumulates during thousands of years and stores concentrated carbon in thick layers Peat of 2 m deep, >50% carbon
  4. 4. Belarus Peat accumulates through water saturation: Natural peatlands are always wetlands!
  5. 5. Peatlands are found in almost every country. Worldwide: 4 million km2 peatland cover
  6. 6. Peatlands are ‘everywhere’ and very diverse Sichuan, China
  7. 7. … this is a peatland in the tundra … Yakutia, RF
  8. 8. Brunei … this is a peatland in the tropics …
  9. 9. …this is a peatland 1000 km from Antarctica… Argentina
  10. 10. Colombia …this is a peatland in the high mountains …
  11. 11. Archangelsk, RF … this is a peatland in the sea …
  12. 12. Not recognized - not appreciated: the Cinderella Syndrom Ruoergai, China
  13. 13. UNFCCC 2006 (Nairobi): In Kenya there is no peat… 10 km from the Convention venueKenya
  14. 14. UNFCCC 2011 (Panama): We didn‘t know we hàd peat swamps Panama
  15. 15. Living peatlands are climatically ~neutral. Globally: CO2 sink 150-250Mt CO2-eq.a-1, CH4 source 200 Mt CO2-eq.a-1 Norway CH4 CO2
  16. 16. More important: carbon stock! Peatlands are the most space- effective carbon stores of all terrestrial ecosystems Java
  17. 17. Compared to other formations, peatland store disproportionally much Carbon, especially in their peat
  18. 18. In the Boreal zone peatlands hold 7 x more C per Ha than other ecosystems, in the Tropics 10 x. Onega delta, Russia
  19. 19. While covering only 3% of the World’s land area, peatlands contain >500 Gigaton of carbon. Germany
  20. 20. Sabah i.e. twice the carbon stock of the world’s total forest biomass
  21. 21. Through a forest you can walk… Brunei
  22. 22. Karelia, RF …through a peat body not…
  23. 23. Living peatlands: they still exist worldwide (>80%) …. Scotland
  24. 24. …but that is not where it is all about… Sarawak
  25. 25. Bostang RadjagukgukKalimantan ‘Peatlands and climate’ is about desert plants cultivated on deeply drained peatland… Aloe vera
  26. 26. … semi-arid Maize on drained peatland … Germany
  27. 27. …cows on drained peatland… Denmark
  28. 28. … potatoes on drained peatland… Ukraine
  29. 29. … forests on drained peatland…. Scotland
  30. 30. Palm oil can grow and produce well on peat … oil palm on drained peatland… Malaysia
  31. 31. … pulpwood on drained peatland…. Sumatra
  32. 32. Mobilisation of the carbon stock by peatland drainage (for agriculture and forestry) leads to huge emissions Kalimantan
  33. 33. Jurasinski et al. 2016 Deeper water table  more GHG emissions
  34. 34. A potato field on peat in Europe emits 37 T CO2e /ha/yr = 185.000 km with middle class car Germany Potatoes from peat are fossil resources…
  35. 35. Malaysia Oil palm on peat in SE Asia emits 60 T CO2e /ha/yr = 300.000 km by car: every hectare, every year
  36. 36. German peatland agriculture emits twice as much CO2 as the 7th dirtiest power plant in the world
  37. 37. Globally, drained peatlands emit 2 Gigatonnes CO2e /yr, i.e. 0.6 % of the land produces 5% of all emissions Indonesia And in some years much more…
  38. 38. Indonesia leads the list of global top emitters, also without the enormous fires… Indonesia
  39. 39. But the European Union is a good second … Germany
  40. 40. 24 UNFCCC parties, incl. 12 European and 9 EU countries are responsible for 95% of all global peatland emissions
  41. 41. Peatland emissions per country (in Mt CO2e/yr): highest global urgency for peatland rewetting
  42. 42. In 25 countries, peatlands emit > 50%, in 50 countries >10 % compared to their emissions from fossil fuels & cement Uganda
  43. 43. Peatland emissions as % of national fossil fuel & cement emissions: importance for national climate policies
  44. 44. Peatlands emissions per unit national land area (tCO2e/km2): most relevant for national land use policies
  45. 45. Global emissions from agriculture : 1/3 from CH4 (rice, cattle), 1/3 from N2O (fertilizer), 1/3 from CO2 (peat) Indonesia
  46. 46. Example: Agriculture in Germany: little land (7%) causes much emissions (37%)  focus for Paris Agreement!
  47. 47. Peatland drainage leads to various societal damage effect damage where solution fire + haze health, welfare, economy and politics local, national, regional full rewetting OR better management emissions climate global rewetting: the higher the better subsidence land availability, food security local, national, global full rewetting
  48. 48. Peatland drainage leads to various societal damage effect damage where solution fire + haze health, welfare, economy and politics local, national, regional full rewetting OR better management GHG emissions climate global rewetting: the higher the better subsidence land availability, food security local, national, global full rewetting
  49. 49. Peat is like atjar tjampoer: when you remove the conserving acid/sweet water, the organic material rots away
  50. 50. By peatland drainage the soil subsides 1939 2013 Netherlands
  51. 51. drainagewater table rise wet peatland subsidence … “vicious circle of peatland utilisation”…
  52. 52. …Nether-lands: bogged down by 1000 yr of peatland drainage and subsidence 8 m subsidence
  53. 53. …Nether-lands: now half the country deep under sea level…
  54. 54. …and subsidence continues…
  55. 55. …and subsidence continues… In tropics subsidence 5 times faster!
  56. 56. Many peatlands are coastal and will - with continuing drainage - be flooded…
  57. 57. Drained land use on coastal peatland will – in the near future - lead to the loss of substantial tracts of land Aljosja HooijerSumatra
  58. 58. time height Tidal range Whereas the sea level rises, we bog the peatlands down…. start of drainage
  59. 59. flooding salt intrusion drainagesubsidence food security acid sulphate soils ghg emissions fire haze fodder land loss fuel fiber biodiversity loss productivity That thing with the Three gears cannot work. Can it, daddy? No girl, It can‘t… Drained peatland use destroys its own subsistence base
  60. 60. We are loosing land, now that we need it most: for more people, for less poverty, and for replacing fossil resources Kalimantan
  61. 61. Rewetting solves most of these problems Germany
  62. 62. …especially when combined with paludiculture (wet agriculture and forestry)… Sumatra
  63. 63. Fire + haze wet drained unused conservation abandoned used paludiculture plantations
  64. 64. Emissions wet drained unused conservation abandoned used paludiculture plantations
  65. 65. Subsidence wet drained unused conservation abandoned used paludiculture plantations
  66. 66. • Keep wet peatlands wet • Make drained peatlands wet • Develop wet land use (paludicultures) Brunei
  67. 67. Peatlands must be wet: for the climate, for the land, for the people, for ever…

×