Past forest and land fires in SEA: What did we learn?

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This presentation by CIFOR scientist Daniel Murdiyarso talks about the haze problem in South East Asia (SEA). He focuses on the El-Nino Southern Oscillation, if the fires are a problem, the history of fires in SEA, what different impacts the fires can have and how fires and haze should be addressed.

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Past forest and land fires in SEA: What did we learn?

  1. 1. Past forest and land fires in SEA: What did we learn? Daniel Murdiyarso
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • • El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – a teleconnection Is fire a problem? • SEA fire history • Fires can have differentiated impacts • • • GHG emissions Transboundary haze pollution Health • Addressing fires and haze
  3. 3. ENSO – a teleconnection
  4. 4. This week
  5. 5. SST Anomaly (oC) for Nino 3.4 Tahiti-Darwin SOI
  6. 6. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
  7. 7. IOD and SOI predictability: rainfall and NDVI IOD SOI IOD & SOI Source: Adiningsih and Murdiyarso, 2009
  8. 8. But….. El-Nino has never been the cause
  9. 9. Daily Average PSI in Klang Valley (Sep 1997) 600 500 KL PJ Kajang Kelang S. Alam Gombak 400 300 200 29-Sep 22-Sep 15-Sep 8-Sep 0 1-Sep 100 (Source: Noor, et al., 1998)
  10. 10. Daily Average PSI in Singapore (2013)
  11. 11. Fire emissions 2000-2006 (moderate El Nino) • Southeast Asia = 128 + 51 Tg C/y • Borneo = 74 + 33 Tg C/y • Sumatra = 49 + 39 Tg C/y (van der Werf et al. 2008) 1997 (strong El Nino) • Indonesia = 2.12 Mha burnt • C release = 2570 Tg C (Page et al. 2002)
  12. 12. Fire Danger Rating Systems 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
  13. 13. Addressing fires and haze
  14. 14. Mapping the impacts and responses Global Spatial scale Regional Technical assistance programs Greenhouse gas emissions impacts on climate Regional atmospheric haze Regional cooperation on early warning systems and fire-fighting capacities Changes in land development policies National Altered human access Elevated watershed sediment exports Landscape Landscape fragmentation and mosaic structure Damages to property and crops Patch Improving local capacities to manage altered fire regimes Post-fire Nutrient releases days Vegetation succession dynamics year Temporal scale years decades
  15. 15. Key messages • In the last three decades fire regimes in SEA has changed considerably due to anthropogenic factors • Fires still part of land management tool • Zero burning may not be a viable policy • Haze as problems: symptom, transboundary, health • Fire fighting and early warning system are in place • Addressing the underlying causes of fires are more challenging

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