Opportunities and barriers for synergy between
adaptation and mitigation in the Congo basin
A.M.Tiani, F. Kengoum, A.S.P. ...
2. The context of the Congo Basin:
1. Rich forests, high biodiversity, huge carbonsink(up to 40
gt),abundance of natural r...
3. Our questions in the COBAM project and for
today:
Are there opportunities to link adaptation and
mitigation in the Cong...
4. opportunities to link adaptation and mitigation in

the Congo Basin region
The analysis of national and regional policy...
5. Barriersto link adaptation and mitigation in the

Congo Basin region
The implementation of adaptation and mitigation fa...
6. Conclusion
Our work in the region has shown that an effective and
sustainable reduction of deforestation/degradation ca...
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Opportunities and barriers for synergy between adaptation and mitigation in the congo basin

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This document describes a CIFOR research project in the Congo Basin on forests and the synergies between adaptation and mitigation.

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Opportunities and barriers for synergy between adaptation and mitigation in the congo basin

  1. 1. Opportunities and barriers for synergy between adaptation and mitigation in the Congo basin A.M.Tiani, F. Kengoum, A.S.P. Teran, E. Chia, B. Tchatchou, R. Sufo et D.J. Sonwa Thursday, November 14, 2013, 11:00 – 13:00 at Cracow, second Floor, Warsaw stadium 1. The COBAM project: A CIFOR research project in the Congo Basin on forests and the synergies between adaptation and mitigation, funded by AfDBand Economic Community of Central African states (ECCAS) under PACEBCO. Research includes CC policy analysisand participatory action research in 5 pilot projects. We have analyzed CC policy in 5 countries, discussed vulnerability and adaptation with local people in 5 Conservationlansdcapesthroughout the Congo basin; , with of the5 pilot projectsare anattempt to integrate carbon issues in adaptationprojects. They are all led by women and are targeting mainly women. The two others arecommunity forestry projectsaiming at implementing microzoningand integratingsustainable agriculture and agroforestry in traditional forest activities. 1
  2. 2. 2. The context of the Congo Basin: 1. Rich forests, high biodiversity, huge carbonsink(up to 40 gt),abundance of natural resources, ideal settings for the implementation of SFM, CBD, UNFCCC, but growing internal and external pressureson natural resources (logging, mining, poaching, demographic growth, development needs such as dams, railways, agro plantations, mining, urbanization, with State fighting to meet MDG. 2. People’s vulnerability to CC, due to high dependence of their livelihood to climate variations and other threats; Low development and poor governance. However, few adaptation projects are also being developed in the region. 3. Governments are putting priority on mitigationrather than adaptation, focusing ondry and costal zones, meanwhile REDD+ policy targets forest areas. Why? Probably because of the interest of the international community for REDD in the region. Also because humid forests are perceived as more relevant to mitigation (because of high carbon stocks) than to adaptation (because climate variations are not as striking as in the dry tropics). 4. However, mitigation initiatives (Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) are taking place at the national level supported by World Bank, AfBD and UNREDD, but few pilot projects in the field 2
  3. 3. 3. Our questions in the COBAM project and for today: Are there opportunities to link adaptation and mitigation in the Congo Basin region? What are the barriers? 3
  4. 4. 4. opportunities to link adaptation and mitigation in the Congo Basin region The analysis of national and regional policy showed that there are 4 areas where adaptation and mitigation could be pursued together. First. COMIFAC (the regional forest institution) and several national institutions are extending their mandates and political agendas to include both adaptation and mitigation. Second. Several policies and initiatives related to sustainable forest management contribute to mitigation through reduced deforestation and degradation. They also put emphasis on the livelihoods of forest populations and have the potential to integrate adaptation actions. Third. As there is a regional focus on REDD+ rather than on adaptation, REDD+ can be tailored to integrate adaptation issues. One promising avenue is the REDD+ safeguards, particularly the social aspectsthat consider livelihoods and could contribute to reducing the vulnerability of forest populations. Moreover, the vicious circle between vulnerability in one hand, and deforestation/forest degradation in the otherin the Congo Basin makes it difficult to design an efficient and sustainable REDD+ policy and projects without thinking of reducing people vulnerability. Fourth. Discussions around benefits sharing mechanism in REDD+ are also an opportunity to bring adaptation into REDD+. 4
  5. 5. 5. Barriersto link adaptation and mitigation in the Congo Basin region The implementation of adaptation and mitigation face similar barriers: First.Unclear land and forest tenure is a major constraint to REDD and may also lead to the exclusion of local people from land. This land insecurity is also a major source of vulnerability. More generally insecurity and political instability in some places in the region are major barriers to any long-term initiative. Second.Competition between actors and conflicts of leadership, at local or national scales, impede the development of REDD or adaptation initiatives. Third.Thelack of capacity and knowledgeis also a major barrier to both REDD+ and adaptation. During our interactions with national actors involved in climate change issues, we have observed serious knowledge gaps. 5
  6. 6. 6. Conclusion Our work in the region has shown that an effective and sustainable reduction of deforestation/degradation cannot take place without reducing the vulnerability of local people. Adaptation will be also needed to ensure the permanence of carbon stocks in the Congo Basin, which call for an increased space to adaptation in REDD+, as well as building synergies and negotiating trade-offs between adaptation and REDD+. However progress in adaptation planning is limited in the region and REDD+ can represent an opportunity for doing so. More generally, sustainable development has to take into account climate change as a crosscutting issue and as an integrated part of the fight against poverty at all levels. More action research is needed toprogress on the integration between adaptation and mitigation and More research to better understand the link between climate change and development policies and practices,using landscapes as an operational level of work. Thanks you ! 6

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