Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Not by scientists alone: scientific (dis) information and the contribution of traditional ecological knowledge to forest management

326 views

Published on

Given by Terry Sunderland at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Not by scientists alone: scientific (dis) information and the contribution of traditional ecological knowledge to forest management

  1. 1. Cristina Baldauf, Dayanne Támela Soares, Letícia Troian, Terry Sunderland Not by scientists alone: scientific (dis) information and the contribution of traditional ecological knowledge to forest management
  2. 2. Latin America: historical use of NTFPs Traditional people have been using NTFPs over more than 10,000 years In the Amazon → Brazil nut and palm species: ~11,200 to 10,500 years bp (Roosevelt et al. 1996) In Chile: boldo leaves among 45 edible plants dated between ~11,000 to 13,000 in Chile (Dillehay et al. 2008) Microsoft Corporation Bertholletia excelsa H.Melo Oenocarpus bacaba Pneumus boldus Monte Verde campsite H.Melo
  3. 3. Historical use: Traditional Ecological Knowledge
  4. 4. “Paleolithic science” “Neolithic science”: domestication “Modern science” Time 200,000 bp origins 100,000 bp expansion 10,000 bp 300 bp present HUMAN KNOWLEDGE: Historical perspective Toledo and Barrera-Bassols (2009): adapted from Levi-Strauss (1962) “Post-modern science” TEK “SCIENCE”
  5. 5. Lack of basic ecological information on harvested species  Effects of harvesting remain understudied Less studied: Bark and exudates The recent “modern science” and NTFP ecology
  6. 6. Trichilia spp. CATUABA Even for plant species that are widely traded there is little ecological information
  7. 7. Objectives Ecological knowledge is one important aspect of sustainable management strategies To identify the main gaps in scientific ecological knowledge about NTFP’s Testing hypotheses concerning the patterns of available information To discuss the role of traditional ecological knowledge in NTFPs management Suggestions for future research
  8. 8. Methods Level of current ecological information: 30 species commercially harvested for bark and exudates in Latin America and 9 ecological variables Databases for papers, dissertations and “technical notes” which assessed ecological aspects of the selected species. Keywords: scientific and vernacular names; combinations of species name + variables name in English, Portuguese and Spanish
  9. 9. H.Melo H.Melo Luehea divaricata Açoita-cavalo Carapa guianensis Andiroba Myracrodruon urundeuva Aroeira Schinopsis brasiliensis Baraúna Stryphnodendron adstringens Barbatimão Breu Protium heptaphyllum Caesalpinia pyramidalis Catingueira Euphorbia antisyphillitica Candelilla Euphorbia antisyphillitica Drimys brasiliensis Cataia Copaifera langsdorffii Copaíba Trema micrantha Grandiúva Tabebuia impetiginosa Ipê Hymenaea courbaril Jatobá Brosimum gaudichaudii Mama-cadela Pinus caribaea Pinus
  10. 10. Methods Ecological/harvesting variables: Pollination; Seed dispersal; Density; Population structure; Population dynamics; Population genetics; Propagation methods; Bark/exudates regeneration; Effects of harvesting on reproductive system 0- no information available; (red) 1- Information for other species of the same genus; (orange) 2- Preliminary or insufficient information about the species; (yellow) 3-Precise information about the species in one study area or harvesting level; (green) 4- Precise information about the species in more than one study area OR harvesting level 5- Precise information about the species in more than one study area AND harvesting level
  11. 11. Number RES POL DIS PRO REG DEN STR DYN GEN REP 1 bark 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 bark 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 0 3 bark 3 2 3 0 3 3 1 0 0 4 bark 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 2 0 5 bark 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 6 bark 3 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 7 bark 2 3 3 1 3 3 0 2 0 8 bark 3 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 9 bark 3 3 3 0 1 2 2 0 0 10 bark 1 3 3 3 3 2 0 2 2 11 bark 1 3 3 0 2 2 0 2 0 12 bark 2 2 3 0 2 2 2 0 0 13 bark 1 3 3 0 2 2 2 3 0 14 bark 3 3 3 2 3 0 0 0 0 15 bark 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 2 0 16 bark 3 3 3 2 3 0 0 0 2 17 bark 3 3 3 0 3 3 2 2 0 18 exudate 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 0 19 exudate 0 3 0 0 3 3 2 0 0 20 exudate 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 21 exudate 1 3 3 0 2 2 0 0 0 22 exudate 3 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 1 23 exudate 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 0 24 exudate 1 3 3 0 2 2 2 1 0 25 exudate 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 0 3 26 exudate 2 3 3 0 3 3 2 2 2 27 exudate 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 0 28 exudate 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 29 exudate 2 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 3 30 exudate 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 RESULTS
  12. 12. Differences in knowledge between species: key variables Production system Geographic distribution Timber Trade Forest type p > 0.05 p >0.05p > 0.05 p <0.05 p <0.05 t-test; 10000 bootsraps
  13. 13. Correspondence analysis: patterns of knowledge Axis 1 x Axis 2 % Inertia Cumulative % Axis 1 35.4 35.4 Axis 2 23.5 59.0 Axis 3 16.7 75.7 There are no group of species in terms of scientific knowledge Generalized lack of knowledge Critical aspects to be addressed are: REG, DYN, REP. If natural populations are declining: GEN (conservation and domestication) More studies on dry forest and savannas!!
  14. 14. “It is absurd to suppose that the savage, a child in intellect, has reached a higher development in any branch of science than has been attained by the civilized man, the product of long ages of intellectual growth” (James Mooney 1891) AND WHAT ABOUT TEK?
  15. 15. CBD (1992) “Traditional knowledge can make a significant contribution to sustainable development” 2012: 50 years of “The Savage Mind” Lévi-Strauss (1962) Value of indigenous knowledge There is a growing recognition of the importance of TK TK and climate change: adaptation and mitigation strategies will be integrated in the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5, 2014)
  16. 16. Combinations between species scientific and vernacular names + key words (traditional knowledge, local knowledge, ethnobotany, ethnoecology, management, harvesting...) Literature on TEK: rich debate on its merits but with few examples of its application to NTFPs management in Latin America Traditional people rarely document their experiences Case studies NTFPs and TEK
  17. 17. Case study- Himatanthus drasticus (janaguba)
  18. 18. “conventional” and “civil” scientists collaborate to address questions of forest management Interdependent science All people create knowledge Discuss and decide together each stage of the research Necessity of multiple methods: triangulate on better management practice Evaluate conventional and civil science with equal rigour
  19. 19. Information Studies before 2008 Traditional knowledge New studies (2008- 2012): interdependent Autoecology Habitat Cerrado/Cerradão Cerrado/Cerradão Cerrado/Cerradão Density/ha 27.8/ 31.6 Higher in Cerrado 33.3/28.5 Flowering peak Nov/Dec Nov/Dec Nov/Dec Fruiting peak Dez/Jan Dez/Jan Dez/Jan Seed dispersal wind wind Wind Case study- Himatanthus drasticus (janaguba) Comparison between different knowledge
  20. 20. More similarities between new studies and TEK than between “scientific studies”: move beyond “validation”; “reliability” of TEK Post-modern science: “new rationality comprised of multiple rationalities” (Sousa Santos 1988) Information Studies before 2008 Traditional knowledge New studies (2008- 2012): interdependent Harvesting Effects on reproduction No information No effects Increase in reproduction Effects on demography High impacts (based on visual impression) No impacts No impacts (based on matrix models) Individual mortality after harvesting High mortality (based on visual impression) No association between harvesting and mortality No association between harvesting and mortality (biomass experiments) Ideal frequency No information Each 18 months At least 24 months to bark recovery (biomass experiments)
  21. 21. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen et al 1991; Ajzen et al 2011) Knowledge is just one of the predictors of behavior Interval between harvesting events Ideal: at least 18 months (59.5%) In practice: each 12 months (73%): economic pressures
  22. 22. A boatman was transporting a pretentious man through rough water when the first said something that went against grammar rules. - Haven’t you ever studied grammar? - No, said the boatman. - In this case, you’ve lost half of your life. Minutes later, the boatman turned back to his passenger. - Can you swim? - No. Why? - In this case, you’ve lost all your life. We are sinking. (Wisdom tale from oriental tradition, from Shah 1985) THE ROLE OF TEK: CONCLUSION

×