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Networks, actors and power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil


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Brazil is one of the leading countries in designing and implementing a REDD+ scheme. This presentation analyses the political process with its multitude of actors involved, their positions and relations, and the coalition building around REDD policy design. It presents the results of a study that reveals the dynamics of policy networking at a crucial moment of REDD in Brazil.

Maria Fernanda Gebara gave this presentation on 18 June 2012 at a panel discussion organised by CIFOR and partners at the ISEE 2012 Conference at Rio, which convened under the topic "Ecological Economics and Rio+20: Challenges and Contributions for a Green Economy". The panel was titled ‘National strategies for reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and degradation – how much transformational change is possible in current political and economic realities? Part II – A policy network perspective’. For more information, visit

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Networks, actors and power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil

  1. 1. Networks, Actors and Power: A case study of REDD+ in Brazil Global  Compara+ve  Study-­‐REDD+    Interna+onal  Society  for  Ecological  Economics  -­‐  ISEE   Maria  Fernanda  Gebara,  Shaozeng  Zhang,     Leandra  Fatorelli  and  Peter  May   June  2012  –  Rio  de  Janeiro      
  2. 2. REDD+ in Brazil Na+onal   Interagency   REDD+   Na+onal   Strategy   Task  Force   Zero   Plan  for  Compensated   Deforesta+on   Climate   Na+onal  Policy  for   Sub-­‐na+onal  Reduc+on   Pact   Change   Climate  Change   Ini+a+ves   2003 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Voluntary   JUMA   NAMAs   WGs   REDD+   Amazon  Fund  PPCDAM   Regime   and  PES   Principle  and   Bills     Criteria     PPCerrado   More  than  50   FIP   projects  Brazil and REDD+ - Timeline ABC  Plan   THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. REDD+ PNA in BrazilObjec&ve:      To   characterise   the   actors   related   to   REDD+   in   Brazil   who   interact   in  more   variant   forms   of   poli&cal   processes   across   different   levels,  iden+fying  their  main  rela&ons  and  influences.      Research  Ques&ons:    §  Who  are  the  actors  and  networks  influencing  REDD+  policymaking  in   Brazil?    §  What  are  the  surrounding  poli+cs  related  to  REDD+  in  Brazil?  §  What   are   the   implica+ons   of   policy   network   dimensions   to   REDD+   implementa+on  in  Brazil?     THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Methods§  Iden+fica+on  of  ins+tu+ons  based  on  preliminary  research  with   focus  on  the  emerging  REDD+  policy  networks  §  Na+onal  Level  §  Jun.  2010-­‐Sept.  2011     §  REDD+  Related  Ac+vi+es   §  Posi+on  on  REDD+  issues     3Es  +     §  Networks     §  Effec+veness   §  Policies  and  Processes     §  Efficiency     §  Events     §  Equity     §  General  Informa+on     §  Co-­‐benefits   §  Open  Ques+ons   THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Methods Total  of  64  ins&tu&ons  selected  §  Na+onal  Government  agencies  (20):    §  Na+onal  Research  Ins+tu+ons  (4):    §  Domes+c  NGOs  (14):    §  Interna+onal  NGOs  (8)  §  Na+onal  Business  Organiza+ons  (6):  §  Interna+onal  Government  Agencies  (2):    §  Donors  (2):     THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. ResultsInfluence  of  actors     THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. ResultsCollabora&on  between  actors   THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. ResultsScien&fic  Informa&on     THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. ResultsResource  Flow   THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Results General  Percep&ons  §  Majority  called  for  a  na&onal  REDD  regime/structure  as  soon  as  possible,  but  they   disagreed   with   each   other   as   to   whether   all   REDD+   accoun&ng   and   payments   should  go  through  the  na&onal  governments.  §  The   biggest   challenge   for   REDD+   as   perceived   by   most   of   par+cipants   was   to   achieve   effec&ve   coordina&on   between   state   agencies,   the   private   sector,   and   civil  society.    §  The  great  majority  (83%)  agreed  that  REDD+  should  mainly  reward  local  people   for   emission   reduc&on   ac&vi&es.   Another   79%,   agreed   that   REDD+   schemes   should  always  require  permission  from  local  forest  resource  users  in  the  form  of   Free,  Prior  and  Informed  Consent.    §  Most  ac+vity  directly  related  to  REDD+  was  networking  and  providing  discussion   forum.     THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Results Implica&ons  for  the  3Es  §  The  effec&veness  of  REDD+  went  unques&oned  by  many  surveyed  organiza+ons  §  The  efficiency  of  REDD+  was  addressed  in  similar  way,  and  a  “nested  approach”   was  suggested  by  many  §  The  issue  of  equity  and  co-­‐benefits  of  REDD+  was  widely  debated  and  contested   by  the  policy  actors,  especially  those  of  the  civil  society    §  The  majority  of  the  surveyed  organiza+ons  agreed  that  all  REDD+  schemes  should   also   require   the   realiza+on   of   other   key   benefits   as   poverty   reduc&on   and   maintenance  of  biodiversity  §  At   interna+onal   level,   a   half   of   the   organiza+ons   were   not   sure   about   whether   REDD+  will  assure  fairness  in  the  interna+onal  distribu+on  of  environmental   costs   and  benefits  à  “it  depends”  on  the  evolu+on  of  REDD+  policies  §  Conflicts  over  forest  land  and  forest  resources  are  believed  by  many  to  challenge   the  equity  and  fair  co-­‐benefit  sharing  of  REDD+   THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Conclusions§  REDD+   as   a   new   policy   arena   that   puts   various   organiza&ons   into   actor   networks   and   poli+cal   plays.   It   redeploys   exis&ng   organiza&ons   (MMA/INPE)   for  new  tasks  and  gives  birth  to  new  ones  (Amazon  Fund)  to  work  with  REDD+   specific  issues    §  Central  nodes  in  terms  of  coordina+on  and  influence:  MMA  and  IPAM  §  Effec+veness  and  efficiency  need  to  be  beYer  addressed    §  The   equity   and   co-­‐benefits   of   REDD+:   well   debated   and   contested,   but   not   guaranteed    §  Need  for  coordina&on  between  different  levels  and  sectors  of  governance   THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Obrigada!Maria Fernanda Gebara, Phd Candidate (UFRRJ/CPDA)Fundação Getulio THINKING beyond the canopy